Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chromolaena odorata
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Asteraceae


High risk, score: 28 (Go to the risk assessment) Eupatorium odoratum L.

Chamorro: masigsig, masigsig

Chinese: fei ji cao

Chuukese: otuot

English: bitter bush, butterfly weed, Christmasbush, chromolaena, devilweed, hagonoy, Jack in the bush, paraffin-weed, Siam weed, triffid weed

Filipino: agonoi, huluhagonoi

French: fleurit-Noël, herbe du Laos

Kosraean: mahsrihsrihk

Palauan: kesengesil, ngesngesil

Pohnpeian: masigsig, masikisik, wisolmat, wisolmat en rehnwel

Spanish: chimuyo, crucito, hierba de chiva, paleca, rey del todo

"Big bushy herb or subshrub with long rambling (but not twining) branches; stems terete, pubescent; leaves opposite, flaccid-membranous, velvety-pubescent, deltoid-ovate, acute, 3-nerved, very coarsely toothed, each margin with 1-5 teeth, or entire in youngest leaves; base obtuse or subtruncate but shortly decurrent; petiole slender, 1-1.5 cm long; blade mostly 5-12 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, capitula in sub-corymbose axillary and terminal clusters; peduncles 1-3 cm long, bracteate; bracts slender, 10-12 mm long; involucre of about 4-5 series of bracts, pale with green nerves, acute, the lowest ones about 2 mm long, upper ones 8-9 mm long, all acute, distally ciliate, flat, appressed except the extreme divergent tip; florets all alike (disc-florets), pale purple to dull off-white, the styles extending about 4 mm beyond the apex of the involucre, spreading radiately; receptacle very narrow; florets about 20-30 or a few more, 10-12 mm long; ovarian portion 4 mm long; corolla slender trumpet form; pappus of dull white hairs 5 mm long; achenes glabrous or nearly so"  (Stone, 1970; p. 581). It grows in many soil types but prefers well-drained soils. It does not tolerate shade and thrives well in open areas (Ecoport).  Forms dense stands which prevent establishment of other species, both due to competition and allelopathic effects.  Requires disturbance to become established.  When dry, is a flashy fuel which promotes wildland fires. 

"An opportunistic weed generally confined to forest edges and clearings.  It can form dense thickets in disturbed areas and may prevent recruitment of native plant species, thereby delaying successional processes.  Dense infestations can increase the intensity and frequency of fire, leading to further changes in the structure and composition of native plant communities.  C. odorata has the potential to colonise tropical and sub-tropical areas where annual rainfall exceeds 1000 mm per annum.  In its native habitat, the plant trives in tropical rainforest clarings and river flats, appearing early in the successional stage, rapidly establishing dense thickets and then gradually disappearing as the rainforest canopy closes over.  C. odorata can grow on most soils but prefers well-drained sites and will not grow in water-logged or saline soils.  Tree clearing for agriculture and other development appears to facilitate spread of the plant, which is quick to colonise roadsides, forest edges, plantations and pastures.  Agricultural districts, where original rainforest cover has been fragmented into small reserves and corridors, is particularly vulnerable to invasion."  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 31-32).

"Croplands and neglected pastures, forest margins and disturbed rainforests; in well-drained soils" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 23-24). Wind-dispersed seeds. Seeds also cling to hair, clothing and shoes. The tiny seeds can occur as a contaminant in imported seed or on vehicles and machinery. Vehicle traffic can spread the seed along roads. Can propagate vegetatively from stem and root fragments. (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 23-24). "Native from Florida through the West Indies and from Texas through Central and South America to Argentina (Howard 1989, Liogier 1997). It has been accidentally or deliberately introduced and has naturalized throughout much of the tropics"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 288)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2191 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635249)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000070)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (pp. 209-210)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Moore 58215 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 438411)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 573249)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593392)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 288)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1975) (p. 80)
Vouchers cited: Stone 5172 (UG), Courage 45 (US), Courage 60 (US), Fosberg 47714 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 288)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1975) (p. 80)
Voucher cited: Kondo 17 (BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 132061)
Taxon name on voucher: Eupatorium odoratum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 572581)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588313)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593646)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: BMW 5789 (BISH, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687704)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: BMW 5765 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Widely naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687669)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 44909)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 72)
Vouchers cited: N.L.H. Krauss 1883 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1899a (BISH), S. Perlman 21393 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (pp. 209-210)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3237 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511189)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511407)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 581)
Voucher cited: Stone 5172 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 288)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 438126)
Taxon name on voucher: Eupatorium odoratum L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (pp. 30-31)
Voucher cited: H. Pali U.S. Army 199 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39896)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 69)
Recent introduction, subject of an eradication program (Nancy Vander Velde, pers. com.).
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Flynn 6363 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 609542)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 634810)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4383)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Robinson
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1988) (voucher ID: BNM 10200)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48181)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromalaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 25473)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Rob.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 22)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659854)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngidech Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 92)
Papua New Guinea
Admiralty Islands
Los Negros Island invasive
Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Communication to Aliens listserver.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island invasive
Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Communication to Aliens listserver.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Ireland Island invasive
Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Communication to Aliens listserver.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 23-24)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 75)
Gazelle Peninsula, East New Britain.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 212-216)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M (2003) (pp. 479-480)
Subject of eradication program.
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, roadsides, open disturbed land. Introduced in Hainan during World War II; naturalized in Fujian, Hainan, and Yunnan.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (pp. 172, 178)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 281)
As Eupatorium odoratum L. In wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 212-216)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 23-24)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
As Eupatorium odoratum L.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 212-216)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 26)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Introduced as a medicinal herb and naturalized in the south".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M (2003) (pp. 479-480)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37889)
Taxon name on voucher: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Robinson
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 146)
The University of Guam publishes a newsletter on Chromolaena odorata.

"A weed of plantation crops, pastures and an environmental weed" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 23-24).

On State of Hawaii noxious weed list. Subject of an eradication program in Queensland, Australia. A declared noxious weed in South Africa.

Physical: "Manual slashing, use of bush-cutter or tractor-drawn implements are commonly used methods of control. Slashing causes rapid regeneration unless followed by other methods to suppress this weed for an extended period. Manual weeding is labour intensive. Use of tractor drawn equipment is limited to areas that are accessible." (Ecoport)

Chemical:  Chemical control using herbicides applied at the seedling stage or on early regrowth has given encouraging results. Triclopyr has proven to be the most effective. However, problems in herbicide use include (a) the high cost of the chemicals and their application, (b) ecological concerns and, (c) non-compatibility in many cropping and other environmental situations." (Ecoport)

"Remove all seed and flower heads the, leaving the rest of the plants intact, spray with a herbicide, probably 2,4-D Amine plus Picloram (sold as Tordon in Australia). The 2,4-D will kill off the top growth and the picloram will move through the soil, killing the root system."  (Rod Randall, communication to Aliens list server, 30 October 2000).

Biological: "Four insects have been released for biological control, the weevil Apion brunneonigrum, the fly Melanagromyza eupatoriella and two moths, Mescinia parvula and Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata.  Of these, only the last has become established, fairly readily in Sri Lanka, Guam and other Micronesian islands, but with some difficulty in India and Sabah (Malaysia) and it has since spread unaided to the Philippines and Brunei.  It failed to become established in Thailand, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa.  It has produced spectacular defoliation and death of many plants in Guam and striking but sporadic defoliation in Sri Lanka.  In India, populations have built up but damage has seldom been great.  Where established, it is heavily attacked by a range of predators and these are believed to have prevented successful establishment in several countries. 

"The eriophyid mite Acalitus adoratus causes abnormal growth of the epidermal hairs on young leaves and stems of C. odorata.  Although it was never purposely introduced, it was observed in Thailand in 1984 and the Philippines in 1987, but had probably been present for some years.  It is also widespread in Java and Sumatra, but there is no information from other Indonesian islands.  It is present in Yap and Palau in the Caroline Islands and was observed on Guam in November 1993 (R. Muniappan pers. comm.)"  (Waterhouse, 1994; pp. 39, 41).  Waterhouse (1994, pp. 37-53) also lists natural enemies of the species, the biology of the more promising ones, and the status of biological control in individual countries.

The biological control agent Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata has been introduced into Guam, where it effectively defoliates pure stands. It is less successful in scattered plants and patches. It has also been introduced into Rota, Tinian, Aguijan, Palau, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap, but its present status on these islands is unknown. It has been introduced to Saipan where it seems to have been effective in reducing the problem to an occasional nuisance.

"Another natural enemy, Cecidochares connexa (Tephritidae) has been established in Palau and Guam" (Muniappan and Nandwani, 2002; p. 15).


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