Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chloris barbata
Sw., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Chloris inflata Link; Chloris paraguayensis Steud.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: meng ren cao

English: airport grass, feather finger grass, fingergrass, giant finger grass, pea-cock plumegrass, plush grass, purpletop chloris, swollen fingergrass, swollen windmill grass

Hawaiian: mau‘u lei

I-Kiribati: te uteute

Pohnpeian: rehkihs

Spanish: zacate borrego

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted annual [grass] up to 90 cm tall; culms and sheaths strongly compressed; blades long and lax, 10-30 cm long and up to 6 mm wide.  Nodes often purplish, as are the basal sheaths.  Ligule membranaceous, jagged.  Spikes 2-11, usually 10, fertile lemma obovate, about 3 mm long, slightly hairy on the keel, long-hairy on the upper margins, awned, the awn about 4-6 mm long.  Two rudimentary lemmas borne beyond the fertile lemma, these also awned"  (Stone, 1970; p. 195).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  Aggressive invader of degraded land that out-competes native species (Smith, 2002; p. 72).  Abandoned fields and roadsides, particularly in dryer areas.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed areas such as along roadsides and in vacant lots and pastures, 0-550 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1514).  In Fiji, "occurs from sea level to about 30 m in open sunny places where earth is compacted"  (Smith, 1979; p. 311).  "Common in dry, coastal areas" (Whistler, 1988; p. 48). In Guam, "abandoned fields, roadsides, vacant lots, particularly in dryer areas; abundant" (Stone, 1970). In New Caledonia, "très commun en bords de routes et terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 58). In Australia, "a variety of habitats, particularly disturbed areas and roadsides; also levee banks, creek lines and gardens" (Smith, 2002; p. 72).

Propagation:  "Seed is dispersed short distance by wind and water, also as a contaminant of hay and by animals".

Native range:  Origin obscure; widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34828)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3600
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430393)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 10395)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 123700)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 123701)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 123702)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 123703)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 123704)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2162 (US), Falanruw 2192 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 665381)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59215
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1634 (US), Evans 2449 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 401433)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 667796)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 7)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Bonham 33 (US, Fo), Moore 415 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588361)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588362)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 123721)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123722)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 572580)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1772 (US), Evans 2437 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 401432)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Collected in survey, herbarium record pending.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Baltra Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Mosquera Islet, Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Flynn 6077 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 55)
Vouchers cited: T.W. Flynn 6230 (K, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58480 (BISH), P. Raynor 162 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438256)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24405)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata Sw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43815)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 123713)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 311)
Vouchers cited: DA 8838, DA 14305
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31572)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 311)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1213, DA 8309,DA 9128, DA 10832, DA 5823, DA 8117, DA 7158, DA 7159, DA 7160, DA 8335, DA 9167, DA 1892, DA 9093
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 31573)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 123706)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6945 (PAP), D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6075 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 542885)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6596)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42493)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27257)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata Swartz
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Chloris inflata J.H. Link. Voucher cited: J. Florence 12062 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 663570)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris inflata Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Chloris inflata J.H.F. Link. Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11705 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643635)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 98)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 331)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26439, BRY 26684
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10381 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 644308)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 331)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2514, Florence 2262, BRY 25996
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Chloris inflata J.H.F. Link. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2262 (PAP), J. Florence 2514 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491716)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492089)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38268)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris inflata Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 98)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-C. Jolinon 1218 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 664028)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 16)
As Chloris inflata.
Adventice d'introduction européene.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 195)
Voucher cited: Stone 4083 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 23032)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 123720)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 507495)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649446)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000149)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris inflata Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Bryan 733 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 10)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood et al. 11350 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood et al. 9222 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 36-37)
Vouchers cited: Degener & Hateway 21251, Luomala 40
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Voucher cited: Luomala 40
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 36-37)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54787 (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123735)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 322)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 24407, St. John 23784, St. John 23782
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24407 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 123731)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 123732)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 123733)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583833)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583834)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 3)
"Uncommon; sporatic distribution in fields and ruderal areas, widespread but no extensive patches observed".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 80)
Vouchers cited: Jones s.n. (1946), Fosberg 26522 (1946, Bigej), Fosberg 31187, Fosberg 31202 (1950, Bigej), Whistler 21244
Presently rare.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 26522 (US), Fosberg 31202 (US), Fosberg 31187 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123734)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 49)
Rare
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123736)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 123738)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0516200912
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58519 (US), Scully 151N (US?), Swarbrick 9549 (BRIU), Thaman & Manner 40 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Rudérale très commune.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
New Caledonia
Matthew Island
Île Matthew introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Suprin in MacKee 45313
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Rudérale très commune.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Rudérale très commune.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Guillaumin & Baumann 9922
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654837)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654877)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 84)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Krause 1592
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9738 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 30)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 650464)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 428556)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10010)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris inflata Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588757)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3122)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris inflata Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 123715)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 50)
Widespread weed of roadsides and waste land, at low altitudes.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 84)
A common weed in and about towns.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 418031)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402175)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 416642)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 509117)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata (L.) Sw.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 57)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Whistler 5814
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 52)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1514)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 16)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34928
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Sachet 895 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34928 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 27)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 48)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 72)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 72)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sea coasts, offshore islands. Guangdong
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 329)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 84)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 47)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 26)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 109)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 17)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 43852)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris barbata
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 84)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2739
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, South Carolina, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  "It apparently hybridizes with Lepturus repens to produce a plant called Lepturopetium marshallense" (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 80).

Additional information:
Additional online information about Chloris barbata is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Chloris barbata as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Chloris barbata may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1977. Voucher specimen #BNM10010(Otobed, D.O. PW-10010).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3122(Timberlake, J. 3122).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 123702 (Eames, A.J. T 17).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1923. Voucher specimen #BISH 123701 (Wilder, G.P. 21).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 123703 (Garber, D.W. 801).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 123700 (Christophersen, E. 980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 123704 (Yuncker, T.G. 9356).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 123722 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3020).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 123734 (Jones, L.K.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 123735 (Taylor, W.R. 46-1500).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 123736 (Fosberg, F.R. 26930).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 31573 (collector unknown 5823).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 123713 (Lessa, W.A. 67).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 402175 (Giffen 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 123731 (St.John, H. 23784).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 123732 (St.John, H. 23782).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 123733 (St.John, H. 23782).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 123715 (Fosberg, F.R. 31952).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 123720 (Fosberg, F.R. 31223).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 123721 (Fosberg, F.R. 31287).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 123738 (Fosberg, F.R. 31193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1951. Voucher specimen #BISH 123706 (Greenwood, W. 1213).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31572 (Parham, J.W. 8838).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 588757 (Fosberg, F.R. 47606).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 588361 (Evans, M. 1953).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 588362 (Evans, M. 1922).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 23032 (Torres, V.P. 16).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 401432 (Evans, M. 2437).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 401433 (Evans, M. 2449).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 418031 (Whistler, W.A. W2071).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 583833 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1680).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 583834 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1679A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430393 (Whistler, W.A. W3600).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 416642 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1448).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 428556 (Otobed, D.O. PW-10010).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438256 (Fosberg, F.R. 58480).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 507495 (Raulerson, L. 1154).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491716 (Florence, J. 2514).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492089 (Florence, J. 2262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649446 (Herbst, D.R. 7187).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000149 (Herbst, D.R. 7187).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 542885 (Florence, J. 6945).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 665381 (Herbst, D.R. 7314).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 667796 (Herbst, D.R. 7480).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 509117 (Krauss, N.H. 3038).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 572580 (Raulerson, L. 13105).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 664028 (Jolinon, J.C. 1218).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 644308 (Florence 10381).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643635 (Florence 11705).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 654837 (Koyama, H. 8319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 654877 (Koyama, H. 8027).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 663570 (Florence 12062).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 650464 (Victor, S. LR26377).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 39. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 22 pp.

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Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

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Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

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Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

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Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie. 2008. Rapport de mission sur l'atoll de Raro‘ia (Tuamotu Centre) du 12 au 19 Octobre 2008: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire. de l'avifaune terrestre & marine, et recommandations de conservation et de gestion [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 24 pp.

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Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. 2003. Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii. 91 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.