Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chamaecrista mimosoides
(L.) Greene, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cassia mimosoides L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: pangalinau

Chinese: shan bian dou

English: chamaecrista, five-leaf cassia, Japanese tea

Palauan: ukellela chedip

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus: "Trees, shrubs, or herbs, often with extrafloral nectaries on leaf petioles and/or raceme axes; leaves spirally arranged or distichous, paripinnate, the leaflets opposite (numerous and small in our taxa); inflorescences 1-many-flowered, racemose, the axis sometimes adnate to stem, the pedicels 2-bracteolate near or above middle; flowers with 5 sepals, imbricate; petals 5, nearly always highly heteromorphic, yellow (sometimes red-marked near claw), the 2 abaxial ones variously oblique, the vexillar one usually interior in bud but sometimes exterior on one or both sides; androecium functionally (2-) 5-10-merous, essentially actinomorphic, the filaments straight, short, the anthers basifixed, equal or unequal (if unequal not accrescent toward abaxial side of flower), puberulent or pilosulous along lateral sutures, dehiscent by pores or short slits apically; fruit plano-compressed, very rarely winged along sutures, elastically dehiscent, the valves coiling, papery, leathery, or subligneous, the seed funicle deltately dilated, the seeds with a smooth or pitted testa, without areoles"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 116-118).

Species:  "Herbs, suffrutescent, annual or perennial, with woody base, 30-60 cm tall, or low shrubs to 1 m tall, with many slender, puberulent branches. Leaves 4-8 cm, with an orbicular, discoid, sessile gland in upper part of petiole, below lowest pair of leaflets; stipules persistent, linear-subulate, 4-7 mm, with conspicuous longitudinal veins; rachis not canaliculate, sparsely pubescent; leaflets sessile, 20-50 (-80) pairs, reddish brown when dry, linear-falcate, 3-4 x ca. 1 mm, midvein near upper margin of blade, very unequally sided, base obliquely truncate, apex acute, mucronate. Flowers supra-axillary, mostly solitary, sometimes 2 or 3 together in a very short raceme; bracts and bracteoles similar to stipules but latter smaller. Sepals lanceolate, 4-8 mm, apex acute. Petals bright yellow, unequal, obovate to orbicular, equal to or slightly longer than sepals, shortly clawed. Stamens 10, alternately 5 shorter and 5 longer; anthers opening by apical pores. Ovary with stiff, appressed hairs; stigma flat. Legume flat, falcate, 2.5-5 x ca. 0.5 cm. Seeds 10-20, flat, smooth"  (Flora of China online).

"Stipules acicular to lanceolate, usually 3-10 mm long and with only 1-3 nerves in distal portion; leaves with petioles 1-3 mm long, the gland flat, discoid, 0.3-1 mm in diameter; leaf rachis seemingly serrate, the margins of furrow slightly expanded between leaflet pairs into rounded wings; leaflets 15-40 (-80) pairs, the blades usually 2-8 x 0.5-1.5 mm and with venation often immersed or obscure on upper surface; seeds about half as long as broad"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 116-118).

C. nictitans (similar species): "Stipules lanceolate, usually 5-15 mm long and prominently 5-13-nerved; leaves with petioles 3-7 mm long, the gland variable but usually slightly elevated (depressed in center) and 0.5-1 mm in diameter, sometimes obovoid-stipitate; leaf rachis sulcate, the margins of furrow not raised between leaflet pairs and appearing only narrowly winged; leaflets 10-26 (-31) pairs, the blades usually 10-23 x 2-3 mm and with venation evident on both surfaces; seeds nearly as broad as long" (Smith, 1985; pp. 116-118).

Habitat/ecology:  "In Guam it is a rather uncommon roadside weed" (Stone, 1970; pp. 310-311).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Widespread in the paleotropics" (Smith, 1985; pp. 116-118).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 2202 (NY, FU)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 652551)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 652550)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2513 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 90)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58392 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2513 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 153653)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 652552)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Tomil Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 652566)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 118)
Vouchers cited: DA 12578, DA 9560, DA 12147
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 14472)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14474)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 14475)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 310-311)
Voucher cited: Stone 4902 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 428452)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 652553)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10020)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaecrista mimosoides L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 652567)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 153651)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 221)
In grassland, not rare.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 118)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 263-264)
In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, in some regions ascending to 1,500 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 34)
As Cassia mimosoides
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Slopes, wastelands, among bushes, grasslands. S. China".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 135)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
As Cassia mimosoides L. subsp. leschenaultiana Ohashi
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 25)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1984) (voucher ID: PTBG 37903)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia mimosoides
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island   Polhill, R. M. (1990)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 13 DEC 2010.