Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Centrosema molle
Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Centrosema pubescens auct. pl.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ju ban dou

English: bluebell, bluebell, butterfly pea, centro, spurred bufferfly-pea

Fijian: pi ni ndola

French: fleur-languette, pois bâtard

Maori (Cook Islands): kūtū, piriarero

Spanish: amarillo lagarto, flor de conchitas, frijol cuchillo, gallinita, patillo

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A climbing or prostrate herb, often forming tangled mats, introduced and now also naturalized near sea level along roadsides, in waste places, on river banks and on coconut plantations. The stems are slender and pilose, the leaflet blades oblong to ovate, 3-9 x 1.5-5 cm, short-pilose but glabrate on both sides. The compact inflorescences are several-flowered, the standard being blue to purple with darker veins and yellow-tinged, up to 4 x 3 cm, pubescent without, and with a spur scarcely 1 mm long. The fruits, up to 17 cm long and 7 mm broad, are ribbed near the sutures, with numerous (often about 20) seeds up to 5 x 3 x 2 mm and red-brown with black streaks" (Smith, 1985; p. 232).

Habitat/ecology:  Forms dense mats and climbs onto trees.  "Disturbed sites, particularly in urban and agricultural areas.  A vigorous creeper that invades disturbed areas to choke out more desirable species.  Often the tree layer is destroyed and regeneration of native species is prevented"  (Smith, 2002; p. 46).

Propagation:  "Seed is spread intentionally as a pasture species.  Seeds are also spread in mud adhering to vehicles and through indiscriminate dumping of garden refuse. Produces large quantities of viable seed making control difficult."  (Smith, 2002; p. 46).

Native range:  Tropical America, now widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Anon. (1988)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 653950)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 36)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 36)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593613)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 74)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666383)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 85)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 91)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Presence not verified.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Presence not verified.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 90)
As Centrosema molle Mart. ex Benth. Voucher cited: A. Rinehart LR25240 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 660198)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 232-233)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones-879
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Naitamba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 232-233)
Voucher cited: DA 9645
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 232-233)
Voucher cited: DA L.15608
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 232-233)
Vouchers cited: DA 14348, DA 11312, DA 9519, DA 8485, DA 12130, DA 870
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 14431)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 14432)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 14433)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14434)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 32856)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6944 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42340)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema molle Mart. ex Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12034 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (pp. 34-35)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64764 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64764 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 599717)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 144)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26706, BRY 25736
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3499 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63133 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491361)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 144)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63503
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10610 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63503 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607247)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664048)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 144)
Voucher cited: Florence 3109
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3109 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491148)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37284)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema molle Mart. ex Benth.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6123 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 661134)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 661135)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. (1998) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: T. Flynn et al. 6126 (BISH, MO, NY, PTBG, US), Hume & Levine 280 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 27)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 001130-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: C. Imada, B. Kennedy, G. Ragosta & J. Preble 2007-10 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 142)
Not seen in 1978 or thereafter.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Blanchon 285 (NOU), MacKee 12781, MacKee 15103, MacKee 21882, MacKee 31236, MacKee 43782
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 147)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150510; CHR 150513; CHR 150512
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6679 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 30207)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema molle Mart. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 661136)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3078)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth cv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 661137)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3152)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 105)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 76)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10803 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 642805)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Whistler 215
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83894)
Taxon name on voucher: Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Buelow 763
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 46)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 46)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Introduced forage plant; near sea level to 100 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 139-140)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 76)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 25)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Introduced forage plant; near sea level to 100 m".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Vouchers cited: Robertson 2744, Todd 31
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  Often introduced as a pasture legume or as a contaminant in seed.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Centrosema molle is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Centrosema molle as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Centrosema molle may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3078(Timberlake, J. 3078).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1982. Voucher specimen #BNM3152(Timberlake, J. 3152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 14431 (Parham, B.E. 2558).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 14432 (Nand, S. 8485).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 661134 (Fosberg, F.R. 39192).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 14433 (Narayan, R. 11312).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 14434 (Pillay 12130).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 32856 (Qoro, I. 14348).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 661135 (Evans, M. 1775).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 661136 (Fosberg, F.R. 50598).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83894 (Whistler, W.A. W 215).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 653950 (Fosberg, F.R. 58270).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 661137 (Timberlake, J. 3078).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491148 (Florence, J. 3109).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491361 (Florence, J. 3499).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593613 (Herbst, D.R. 6847).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 607247 (Fosberg, F.R. 63503).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 599717 (Fosberg, F.R. 64764).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 664048 (Florence 10610).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 642805 (Florence 10803).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 666383 (Sykes, W.R. 474470).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 660198 (Rinehart, A. LR 25240).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. 1998. New naturalized plant records for the Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1997. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 56:5-6.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hanum/I. Faridah/Van der Maesen, L.J.G, eds. 1997. PROSEA : Plant resources of south-east Asia 11, auxiliary plants. LIPI Press, Jakarta, Indonesia. 385 pp. ISBN 979-799-093-1.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. 2008. New plant records from Herbarium Pacificum for 2007. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100:12-16.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 0. Voucher specimen #PTBG30207(Tim Flynn 6679).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37284(Art Whistler W 4871).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2004. Voucher specimen #PTBG42340 (David H. Lorence 9304).

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. 2003. New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 74:23-34.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 MAR 2013.