Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cenchrus polystachios
(L.) Morrone, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.; Pennisetum polystachyon (L.) Schultes

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: sakate

Chinese: mu di lang wei cao

Chuukese: mechen katu

English: blue buffle grass, feather pennisetum, feathery pennisetum, mission grass, West Indian pennisetum

Fijian: o tamata

French: queue de chat

Palauan: desum

Pohnpeian: poakso

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted annual [grass]; culms slender to moderately stout, up to 2 m tall, usually 1-2 m, simple or few-branched; blades 5-40 cm long, 5-18 mm wide, glabrous or pubescent; spike dense, yellow brown, 5-25 cm long, 13-26 mm wide; spikelets surrounded by bristles, these densely hairy at base, unequal, one longer than the others but not greatly exceeding the next one or two shorter ones, 12-25 mm long; spikelets 2-flowered c. 5 mm long, upper floret perfect" (Stone, 1970; pp. 221-222).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "The plant inhabits disturbed areas including roadsides, degraded pastures and waste sites" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 185).  "Forest gaps and edges, woodland, disturbed sites.  This grass is well adapted to soils of low fertility and occurs mainly in grasslands on sandy soils where native.  It grows quickly and is fairly shade tolerant.  It becomes dominant in cleared forests and spreads quickly after fires, forming dense tussocks that may cover large areas.  Native plants are displaced and natural regeneration of trees and shrubs in prevented"  (Weber, 2003; p. 312).

In Australia, "provides fuel for extremely hot, late season fires and may have altered natural fire regimes" (Smith, 1995, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 185). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry to mesic exposed areas, usually in low elevation alien communities, agricultural areas, and disturbed dry to mesic forest, 30-2,140 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1579).  In Fiji, "naturalized from sea level to about 1,000 m. on open hillsides, in rocky stream beds, and along roadsides.  It grows in very dense stands and is the dominant plant on open hills in certain areas miles in extent, especially in the dry zones of Viti Levu but also in parts of Vanua Levu"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 359-360).

Propagation:  "Reproduction occurs from seeds which are light and fluffy.  The seeds can be dispersed by flowing water, strong winds or they may adhere to clothing, vehicle radiators, wool and bags" (Smith, 1995; Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 185).

Native range:  Tropical Africa to India, now rather commonly introduced in warm regions.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 101)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (pp. 202-203)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Moore 58271 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438392)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438394)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 540132)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588129)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1987) (voucher ID: PTBG 38712)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 572386)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 84-86)
Forma viviparum Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 59907 (US, BISH, POM)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 126460)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 572385)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 595690)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588126)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Yanagi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633389)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (pp. 6, 28)
Voucher: BMW 5767 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Vouhcer cited: KW 14091
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5784 (BISH, BRI)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 60)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 52 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58425 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1904 (BISH), S. Perlman 21406 (PTBG), L. Stemmermann 2929 (BISH), B.M. Waterhouse BMW5784 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (pp. 202-203)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58425 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 432418)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511195)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 561222)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 84-86)
Forma viviparum Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 46499 (US, BISH, DAV, L)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588125)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 595688)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 359-360)
Vouchers cited: DA 16687, DA 16877
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 31615)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 359-360)
Vouchers cited: DA 16687, DA 16877
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 31616)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126450)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126451)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126452)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10718 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 640886)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 221-222)
Voucher cited: Stone 4706 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Var. polystachion and viviparum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 3)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 84-86)
Forma viviparum Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 59748 (US, holotype; BISH, POM, isotypes), Stone 4204 (US, GUAM), Tsutsui 25 (US)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 126459)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 126816)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588127)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588128)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 588130)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 595689)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion f. viviparum Fosberg & Sachet
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 699981)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1579)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 122)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 020226-5 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1579)
Voucher cited: Munro 533 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 23)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 980506-135 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: (West Maui) Starr & Martz 001209-1 (BISH); (East Maui) Starr & Martz 010201-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 30)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 090708-01 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 122)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1579)
Japan (offshore islands)
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 402220)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 402221)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 30837)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 52)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 606417)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Ngeriungs Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015)
(see Pennisetum polystachion [synonym])
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649685)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26460)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schultes
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 193)
Voucher cited: Otobed P-10110 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427450)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10110)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3124)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schultes
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 647142)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Whitmore, T. C. (1969) (p. 261)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 98)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 906 (US), Fosberg 43538 (US), McFarlane 76 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 185)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 185)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 191)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 343)
As Pennisetum polystachyon (L.) Schult.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
As Pennisetum setosum L. C. Rich.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 191)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 114)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 191)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 146)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 856 (K, US), Wiehe 1623 (MAU)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7222 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2688

Comments:  An aggressive weed species. On U.S. Federal noxious weed list. Declared a noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 1995, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 185).

Found on airport on Kosrae and a few other places—probably a relatively new introduction (Space et al., 2000).

Also var. viviparum Fosb. & Sachet reported on Tinian, Guam and Ulithi.

Control: 

Physical:  "Control should aim at preventing seed formation and destroy the soil seed bank.  Scattered plants can be hand pulled or dug out".

Chemical:  "Seedlings are best sprayed with paraquat.  Dense stands can be treated with glyphosate" (Weber, 2003; p. 312).

Biological: See Waterhouse (1994; pp. 190-194) for presently known natural enemies.


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This page was created on 11 MAY 2017 and was last updated on 1 DEC 2017.