Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Celosia argentea
L., Amaranthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Celosia argentea var. cristata; Celosia argentea var. plumosa; Celosia cristata L.; Celosia plumosa (Voss) Burv.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: christangayo, krestan gayu

Chinese: qing xiang

Chuukese: tonenchuko

English: celosia, cock's comb, cockscomb, coxcomb, feather cockscomb, foxtail amaranth, Lagos-spinach, plumeflower, quail-grass, red spinach, red-fox, silver cockscomb

French: amarante crête de coq, célosie argentée, célosie crête de coq

Japanese: nogeitō

Korean: gaemaendeurami

Palauan: chesechil a malk, esechila malk

Pohnpeian: repwen mwalek, ropon-malck

Samoan: māmoe, māmoe

Spanish: borlón, cresta de gallo, rabo de conejo

Tahitian: repe moa

Tongan: lisi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb, erect, 0.4-2 m, simple or with many ascending branches.  Stem and branches strongly ridged and often sulcate, quite glabrous.  Leaves lanceolate-oblong to narrowly linear, acute to obtuse, shortly mucronate with the excurrent midrib, glabrous; lamina of the leaves from the centre of the main stem 2-15 x 0.1-3.2 cm, tapering below into an indistinctly demarcated, slender petiole; upper and branch leaves smaller, markedly reducing; leaf axils often with small-leaved sterile shoots.  Inflorescence a dense (rarely laxer below), many-flowered spike, 2.5-20 x 1.5-2.2 cm, silvery to pink, conical at first but becoming cylindrical in full flower, terminal on the stem and branches, on a long, sulcate peduncle up to c. 20 cm long, which often lengthens during flowering.  Bracts and bracteoles lanceolate or the lower deltoid, 3-5 mm, hyaline, more or less aristate with the excurrent midrib, persistent after the fall of the flower.  Perianth segments 6-10 mm, narrowly elliptic-oblong, acute to rather blunt, shortly mucronate with the excurrent midrib, with 2-4 lateral nerves ascending more than halfway up each segment, margins widely hyaline.  Filaments very delicate, free part subequalling or exceeding the staminal sheath, sinuses rounded with no or very minute intermediate teeth; anthers and filaments creamy to magenta.  Stigmas 2-3, very short, the filiform style 5-7 mm long; ovary 4-8-ovulate.  Capsule 3-4 mm, ovoid to almost globular.  Seeds c. 1.25-1.5 mm, lenticular, black, shining, testa very finely reticulate" (Dassanayake, 1981; pp. 3-4).

Habitat/ecology:  Commonly cultivated. In Fiji, "infrequently naturalized at low elevations and near streams" (Smith, 1981; p. 284). In Papua New Guinea, "a plant of roadsides, particularly where disturbance has been recent, and on building sites, earthworks, quarries, river-beds; also a weed in annual crops and sometimes in heavily-grazed pasture" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 56); "often occurring as a weed in dry open places such as roadsides and waste lands, as well as stream beds, from sea level to 1200 (-1800) m altitude" (Womersley, 1978; p. 30).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Probably originally from tropical Africa, but spreading early throughout tropical Asia and Malesia; many cultivars are widely grown in tropical and subtropical areas (Smith, 1981; p. 284). Widely naturalized tropical weed; exact native range obscure, perhaps India (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31562 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. argentea and var. cristata
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. argentea and var. cristata
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Vars. argentea and cristata
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. argentea and var. cristata
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. argentea and var. cristata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2519 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 66)
Vouchers cited: S.F. Glassman 2519 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 59 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 284-285)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9462 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39701)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 41966)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 27)
var. cristata. Voucher cited: Moore 776
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: BRY 26392
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 267)
Voucher cited: Stone 4870 (GUAM)
Cultivated and occasionally escapes.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 26635)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80105 (BISH, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 69-70)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: St. John 21669 (BISH), Fosberg 26728 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 61)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 86)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Schmid 980
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 2815, Däniker 1213, MacKee 6449, MacKee 11868, MacKee 34254; var. cristata (L.) O. Ktze; vouchers cited: MacKee 15649, MacKee 26497
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 41)
cv. cristata. Voucher cited: CHR 169897
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Voucher: Lorence 9891 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 184)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 1115)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 1114)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 63)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Spreading.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 164)
Ornamental plants, frequent in the planations and gardens of the natives.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 56)
Widespread at low altitudes.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (pp. 30-31)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 127)
At low and medium altitudes in the settled areas; an introduced weed.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Ross 40
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 284)
Taxon name on voucher: Celosia argentea
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, field margins, a common weed. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 78)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 73)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
var. argentea and var. childsii Hort.
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 73)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Casual
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 73)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, field margins, a common weed.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 18)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 MAR 2013.