Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Casuarina cunninghamiana
Miq., Casuarinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xi zhi mu ma huang

English: creek-oak, cunninghamia beefwood, fire-oak, gray sheoak, river oak, river she-oak, small cone ironwood

French: filao de Nouvelle-Hollande, filao des Hauts

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 15-35 m high. Bark finely fissured and scaly, grey-brown. Teeth on new shoots erect. Branchlets drooping in vigorous specimens, erect in depauperate specimens; articles 4-9 mm long, 0.4-0.7 mm diam., mostly glabrous; edges of furrows often marked (when dry) by a slight ridge; phyllichnia angular to flat with a median rib; teeth 6-10, erect, 0.3-0.5 mm long, marcescent or not. Male spikes 0.4-4 cm long, 11-13 whorls per cm; anther 0.4-0.7 mm long. Cones sparsely pubescent; peduncle 2-9 mm long; cone body 7-14 mm long, 4-6 mm diam.; bracteoles broadly acute to acute. Samara 3-4 mm long." (George, 1989; p. 106)

"Trees to over 20 m tall, often planted at higher (1,000-2,000 m) altitudes; green branchlets with internodes averaging 3-6 mm long, 0.4-0.6 mm thick, very sparsely puberulent with minute whitish hairs 0.03-0.1 mm long. Leaves scale-like, in whorls of usually 8 (7 to 10), free distal portion 0.3-0.5 mm long, acute. Male spikes about 2 cm long and 1 mm thick; female cones 6-10 mm thick at maturity; the samara 3-5 mm long, grayish brown, with the wing becoming twice as long as the body of the fruit" (Berger, 1971; p. 4).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grows along permanent streams" (George, 1989; p. 106).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Australia, naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 19)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 73)
Cultivated, roadside tree.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 511)
Known from one site only...established on a bank near a shelter belt of the same species.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/subspontanée"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  See control methods for Casuarina equisetifolia.


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This page was created on 26 OCT 2003 and was last updated on 20 MAR 2012.