Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Carmona retusa
(Vahl) Masam., Boraginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don; Cordia retusa Vahl; Ehretia microphylla Lam.; Ehretia monopyrena Gottschling & Hilger

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji ji shu

English: Fukien tea, Philippine tea, scorpionbush

Kwara‘ae: aidasi, ailau

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Evergreen shrub to small tree. Leaves in clusters of 3-5, blade obovate or oblanceolate, 1.5-4 cm x .8-2.5 cm, base decurrent onto petiole, coarsely 3-5 toothed towards apex, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, when young both surfaces with stiff white hairs, upper surface becoming scabrid, petiole 1-5 mm long. Flowers 3-12 flowered scorpioid cymes, unbranched or branched once, sepals 4-5, lanceolate, 3-4 mm long; corolla white, rotate, 8-10 mm in diam., lobes 4-5, 3-4 mm long. Fruit globose, 4-5 mm in diameter, ripening brownish orange, pericap thin, pyrene white, bony." (Lorence et al. 1995; p. 25).

"Shrubs or small trees, to 2 m, the twigs glabrous to sparsely strigillose. Leaves mostly fasciculate on short, spur-like branches, occasionally alternate, small, spathulate, to 4.0 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, retuse and/or with 2-7 teeth at apex, the bases attenuate, somewhat coriaceous, uniformly scabrate above, the trichomes with cystolith-like bases; subsessile. Inflorescences mostly solitary and axillary. Flowers small, subsessile to pedicels c. 2 mm long; calyx of 5 sepals, slightly connate basally, spatulate, 3-3.5 mm long, to 4 mm in fruit; corolla salverform, white, tube shallow, 5-lobed, the lobes c. 3 mm long; stamens exserted, the anthers c. 1.2-1.6 mm long, the filaments 1.5 mm long; ovary globose, the style slender and elongate, cleft below the middle (1.5 mm unbranched and 2.5 mm for branches), stigmas scarcely differentiated. Fruit drupaceous, globose, 3.5-4 mm in diameter, 4-seeded, not separating at maturity" (Dassanayake, 1991; pp. 5-6).

Habitat/ecology:  "Sandy soils and scrub forests" (Dassanayake, 1991; pp. 5-6). In Hawai‘i, cultivated as a hedge plant, naturalized in secondary vegetation (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 25).

Propagation:  Seed, bird-dispersed.

Native range:  "All of southern Asia from India to Taiwan and the Philippine Islands, and eastward to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands" (Dassanayake, 1991; pp. 5-6).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn & M. Egan 4390 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 25)
West Maui. Voucher cited: R. Hobdy 3286 (BISH, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 25)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 001128-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 050516-5 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 25)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Dassanayake, M. D., gen. ed. (1991)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 374-375)
As Ehretia microphylla. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium latitudes, often common.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Dassanayake, M. D., gen. ed. (1991)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Carmona microphylla (Lamarck) G. Don. Thickets. S Guangdong, Hainan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Celebes, Irian Jaya, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Sumatra
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Carmona microphylla (Lamarck) G. Don. Thickets.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 17)


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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 6 NOV 2011.