Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cardiospermum halicacabum
L., Sapindaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dao di ling

English: balloon vine, blue passionflower, blue passionfruit, heart pea, heartseed, lesser balloonvine, love in a puff, small balloonvine, winter-cherry

Fijian: vo niu, wa niu

French: bonnet de prêtre, liane poc-poc

Hawaiian: haleakai‘a, ‘inalua, pōhuehue uka, pōniu

Tahitian: vinivinio

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Climbers, herbaceous, 1-1.5 m. Stems and branches green, 5- or 6-sulcate, slender, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Leaves biternate, triangular in outline; petioles 3-4 cm; leaflets subsessile; blades thinly papery, margin sparsely serrate or pinnately parted, abaxially sparsely villous on midvein and lateral veins, adaxially subglabrous or sparsely pilosulose; terminal blade obliquely lanceolate or subrhombic, 3-8 x 1.5-2.5 cm, apex acuminate; lateral ones slightly smaller, ovate or narrowly elliptic. Panicles few flowered, ca. as long as or slightly longer than leaves; peduncles straight, 4-8 cm, tendrils spiralled. Sepals 4, ciliate, outer 2 ovate, 8-10 mm, inner 2 narrowly elliptic, ca. 2 x as long as outer ones. Petals milky-white, obovate. Stamens (male flowers) ca. as long as or slightly longer than petals; filaments sparsely long villous. Ovary (female flowers) obovoid or sometimes subglobose, pubescent. Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid, 1.5-3 x 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ca. 5 mm in diam.; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate"  (Flora of China online).

"Delicate, branching, herbaceous climber with trifoliolate leaves and tendrils in pairs on the inflorescences; leaflets coarsely toothed and lobed; terminal leaflet to about 4 cm long; flowers minute, greenish white, about 3 mm wide; sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 4 longer, 4 shorter; fruit inflated, like a three-sided balloon, pendent, about 1-1.4 cm long, eventually dehiscent; seeds black with a pale heart-shaped hilum"  (Stone, 1970; p. 395).

See also Cardiospermum grandiflorum.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "probably naturalized, occurring in low elevation disturbed sites"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1226).  In Fiji, "this widespread species occurs from near sea level to about 200 m as a scrambling, creeping, or climbing vine, occasional in thickets and grassy areas and also as a weed of cultivation in canefields and coconut plantations"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 582-583). In New Caledonia, "citte espèce, d'origine américaine, pourrait être d'introduction ancienne" (MacKee, 1994; p. 126). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 305).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Exact native range obscure, probable origin neotropics; cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 152)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593273)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660617)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 152)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 595924)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 660616)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 152)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 179227)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 179228)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 23803)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Voucher: Flynn 7050 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 372)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 179239)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: Bryan 562
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 179230)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 179231)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: Moseley s. n.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: Milne 151
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: Milne 243
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: DA 11515
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 15314)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Vouchers cited: Greenwood 69, Greenwood 69A, DA 7870, DA 11858 (L.6419), Barclay 3464
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 15315)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 582-583)
Native? Voucher cited: Tothill 82
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 2709 (PAP), J. Florence 7377 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 21360)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 13236)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8495 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 541066)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39473)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40179)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Sachet 943 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 259)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 34, Fosberg 62920, Florence 9266, BRY 25999
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2278 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 62920 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493087)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 152)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island uncertain if native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1226)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2584a (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2584 (Z), MacKee 25467
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 277, Pancher s.n., Delacour s.n., Melle. Kiener 8 s.loc., Blanchon 1366 (NOU), MacKee 11931, MacKee 12523, Déméné in MacKee 17643, Aymard in MacKee 40452, Toutain 3470 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Voucher cited: Germain s.n.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 186)
Voucher cited: CHR 168929
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 49)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago possibly introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 332-333)
Pan-tropical, but in the Bismarck Archipelago perhaps introduced or a garden escape.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 493-494)
In thickets, waste places, etc., in the settled areas; certainly an introduced plant.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 40)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640413)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Voucher: Flynn 6894 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 248)
Taxon name on voucher: Cardiospermum halicacabum
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 173)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 626
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n., Soakai 798
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 173)
Cited: Harvey, Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 32)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, shrublands, grasslands, cultivated areas, wastelands. Common in E, S, and SW China, rare in N China.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 194)
In thickets, along roadside, on farmlands or margins of forests.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
var. halicacabum and var. microcarpum Bl.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 25)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 65)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2468
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A minor invasive species in Micronesia. Invasive in Cook and Solomon Islands (Waterhouse, 1997).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 MAR 2013.