Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cardamine hirsuta
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: sui mi ji

English: bitter cress, common bitter cress, hairy bitter cress, hoary bitter cress, wavy bitter cress

French: cardamine hirsute, cardamine pennée, cardamine poilue, cardamine velue, cressonette

Spanish: berro, mastuerzo amargo, mastuerzo de prado, mastuerzo menor, mastuerzo velloso

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb. Rhizomes 0. Stems often many from base of plant, suberect, glabrous, straight, green or purplish, 10-25-(40) cm tall. Leaves thin, green, sparsely hairy above and sometimes on petiole. Rosette leaves pinnate, petiolate; terminal leaflet circular, bluntly lobed, truncate to cordate, slightly > laterals; lateral leaflets in (1)-2-3-(4) pairs, ovate, bluntly lobed to entire, truncate to cordate and ± unequal at base; petiolules < leaflets. Cauline leaves pinnate, petiolate; terminal leaflet = to slightly > laterals, obovate to narrow-oblanceolate, cuneate, entire to bluntly lobed; lateral leaflets in 2-3 pairs, obovate, becoming narrow-oblanceolate, truncate becoming cuneate at base, bluntly lobed to entire; petiolules short. Inflorescence. racemose, straight, glabrous, (5)-10-15 cm long. Pedicels glabrous, erecto-patent, (4)-6-10-(13) mm long at fruiting. Sepals sparsely hairy, purplish, pinkish or green, 1-2 x 0.4-0.6 mm; margins scarious. Petals white, erect, spathulate, 2-3 x 0.5-0.8 mm. Stamens 4-(6). Silique pale yellowish green, rarely with purplish valves, erect, (10)-15-20-(25) x 1-1.3 mm; valves glabrous or hairy; style c. 0.5 mm long. Seeds reddish brown, broad-oblong, very narrowly winged, c. 1 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 412).

Habitat/ecology:  In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of gardens, nursery beds and house-yards in wet localities"  (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 93).  In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe assez répandue par endroits frais en jardins et pépinières" (MacKee, 1994; p. 44).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0 - 500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall. Short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month). Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. Precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun. Level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Macaronesia, Europe, Africa, Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A recently arrived garden weed, in outdoor flower pots and in moist situations". Voucher cited: R.O. Gardner 5788 (AK)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Cuevas, Jaime G./Marticorena, Alicia/Cavieres, Lohengrin A. (2004) (p. 535)
Voucher cited: JF 62
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 403)
Voucher cited: University of Hawaii Student s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 403)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 13327, MacKee 21678, MacKee 22536, MacKee 31823, MacKee 33107
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 93)
Common in some localities at both low and median altitudes.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Mountain slopes, roadsides, fields, clearings, wastelands, damp places, grassy areas; near sea level to 3000 m".
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 412)
"Weed of cultivation, waste places and bush remnants".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 157)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ontario
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 3 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 5 NOV 2011.