Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cardamine flexuosa
With., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: wan qu sui mi ji

English: common bittercress, greater bittercress, wavy bitter cress, wood bittercress, woodland bittercress

Japanese: tanetsuke-bana

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or biennial herbs; stems flexuous, ascending to weakly erect, 1-3 dm long, ± sparsely hirsute to subglabrate.  Leaves thin, odd-pinnately compound with 3-11 leaflets, basal leaves usually with more leaflets than cauline leaves, the leaflets ovate to reniform, rarely lanceolate, blades of lateral leaflets 2-10 mm long, 1.5-15 mm wide, 3-5-lobed, the terminal leaflet usually larger, 5-15 (-25) mm long, 6-17 mm wide, usually lobed similar to lateral leaflets, all leaflets sparsely hirsute to subglabrous, apex apiculate.  Flowers in 1 to several racemes 10-20 cm long, pedicels (1-) 2-3 mm long at anthesis; petals white, 2.5-3 mm long, not exceeding the sepals; stamens usually 6, usually divaricately ascending.  Siliques (1-) 1.4-2 (-2.5) cm long.  Seeds 8-14 per cell, reddish brown, broadly oblong, 0.9-1.1 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 402-403).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet to seasonally wet sites in low elevation, disturbed areas to open or shaded areas at higher elevations in wet forest, especially in gulches or streambeds"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 403).  In New Zealand, "weed of cultivation and bush remnants. Cardamine flexuosa is found more often in damper sites than Cardamine hirsuta"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 412).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eurasia (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 403).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 402-403)
Voucher cited: U.S. Expl. Exped. s.n. (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 402-403)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40130 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 402-403)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Hughes s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 402-403)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Fields, roadsides, grasslands, disturbed sites, streamsides, clearings, running water, wet forests, dry sites, greenhouses; near sea level to 3600 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 110)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 412)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 11 FEB 2010 and was last updated on 24 FEB 2010.