Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Capsicum frutescens
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: doni, doni halum tano, doni-halomtano, doni-sali, donné sali, dont sali

Chinese: fan jiang

Chuukese: amwiik, lonni mmwiik yammwiik, moek, muik, mwi, mwi, mwi, mwiik, mwik, yammwiik

English: bird chili, bird pepper, bird's-eye chili, bird's-eye pepper, capsicum, hot pepper, kidachi-to-garashi, perennial chili, red chili, red pepper, spur pepper, Tabasco pepper, tobasco

Fijian: mboro, mboro nganga, mboro ni vavalangi, rokete

French: piment, poivre rouge, poivrons

Hawaiian: nīoi, nīoi pepa

Hindi: mircha

I-Kiribati: te beneka

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘ōporo, oporo

Marquesan: hupo‘o, ‘upo‘o

Marshallese: pepa

Nauruan: epeba

Niuean: polo magiho, polo mangiho, polo misi, polo miti

Palauan: meringel

Pohnpeian: chilee, mwik, sele

Rakahanga-Manihiki: oporo, oporo

Samoan: polo, polo, polo feć, polo feć, polo pālangi, polo pālangi, polo papalagi, polo vao, polo vao, polo vao, polo vao, polu uli

Satawalese: amuek

Spanish: aji, ají picante, chile, guindilla

Tahitian: oporo, ‘ōporo

Tokelauan: polo feć

Tongan: polo, polo fifisi

Tongarevan (spoken): ‘ōpolo

Tongarevan (written): ‘ōporo

Tuvaluan: polo feć, polo feuu, tili

Ulithian: mukh

Wallisian: polo

Yapese: mwech mwig, t‘ebil tebil

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems striate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple hairs on young growth.  Leaves simple, alternate, ovate to broadly lanceolate, 2.5-7 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, margins entire, apex acute to acuminate, base subcuneate, oblique, petioles narrowly winged above, 0.8-2 cm long.  Flowers solitary in the leaf axils and stem forks or more commonly 2-4 per axil, pedicels 1-2.5 cm long, stout in fruit, erect; calyx cupular, truncate, 3-4 mm long, the lobes minute; corolla greenish white or greenish yellow, divided ca. 1/2 to base, the lobes triangular, ca. 1.5 cm in diameter; stamens 5, inserted toward base of corolla tube; filaments ca. 1-2 mm long; anthers bluish, oblong, opening by slits, 1.5-2 mm long; ovary 2-celled, ovate, 1.5-2 mm long; style 1, erect, 3-4 mm long; stigma small, terminal.  Berries erect, usually bright red, rarely purple or yellow, pungent, ellipsoid-conical to lanceoloid, 10-20 mm long, 3-7 mm in diameter.  Seeds yellowish, flattened-lenticular, 3-4 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1253).

Habitat/ecology:  "Red pepper grows on soils of all textures in a wide range of fertilities. Moist, well drained conditions and loose structure is best for rapid growth. Soil pH's of 4.3 to 9.7 are tolerated (Center for New Crops and Plant Products 2002). The species is intolerant of shade: it will grow with broken overhead shade and moderate competition from grass and forbs, but fruits best in full sun. Red peppers can be cultivated in areas that receive from 30 to 430 cm of annual precipitation at elevations from near sea level to more than 2,000 m.  Wild red pepper grows as individuals or groups in gardens, fields, vacant lots, river flood plains, abandoned fields, roadsides, and early secondary forest"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized usually in low elevation, dry to mesic, disturbed areas"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1253).  In Fiji, "freely escaped from cultivation and naturalized in coconut plantations, cultivated fields, and clearings, and along rocky coasts and on open hillsides from near sea level to about 400 m"  (Smith, 1991; p. 27). In New Caledonia, "cultivé et souvent subspontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 130). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 194).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Probably originating in South America but early widespread throughout the New World and subsequently into all tropical and subtropical areas." (Smith, 1991; p. 27).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9568 (BISH), Garber 981 (BISH), Garber 994 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9201 (BISH), Yuncker 9226 (BISH), Garber 571 (BISH), W. Harris 196 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34738)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3421, Diefenderfer s.n.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31588 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: 59109
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31701 (US, BISH), Fosberg 31668 (US, BISH, Fo), Falanruw 1886 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1651 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2250 (US), Falanruw 2265 (US), Falanruw 2267 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 60)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1750? (US), Evans 2343 (US), Evans 2389 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 60)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 45)
Vouchers cited: Marshall 5 (US), Marshall 8 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 228 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7873 (PTBG)
Bird pepper, cultivated and naturalized.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21079)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Ant Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Takamatsu 885 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38744)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28690)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 41827)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43413)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43547)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43477)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46655 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46916 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Smith 304
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 934
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Bryan 285
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Smith 7933
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4499
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: Seemann 346, Gillespie 4656.1
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 221, DA 5948, Greenwood 221A, DA 12187
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39333)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 2156 (PAP)
Planted (also weedy), in garden and yard.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39859)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6716 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41654)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 270)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 16
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Single plant; voucher cited: Sachet 988 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 270)
Vouchers cited: Moore 548, Moore 648, BRY 26632
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Manuae (Scilly) Atoll (Society Islands) introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 142)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 270)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 145, BRY 25476, BRY 26308
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5729 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9173 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 516)
Voucher cited: Stone 3789 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1967) (voucher ID: PTBG 22756)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1253)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1253)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1253)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1253)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Banaba Island
Banaba (Ocean) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Flint Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold/Fosberg, F. Raymond (1937) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: St. John & Fosberg 17473 (BISH)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tabiteuea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 11)
"Rare; few bushes planted in Bikini Projects garden".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. i)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3665
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 12)
"Uncommon; planted by few houses for spice".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 126)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A21)
Rare; planted by private residences, Mili, Bar.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0516200905
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 197)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 27 (Z), Hürlimann 29, MacKee 3829; var. cerasiferum (Mill.) L.H. Bailey, voucher cited: MacKee 20625
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Voucher cited: Baumann 13473
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 192-193)
Voucher cited: CHR 170263
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9631 (BISH), Yuncker 10026 (BISH)
"Established and occasional in thickets and cut-over areas".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 35)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 748)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Carp Resort
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 243)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 746)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 424)
Planted here and there about dwellings, but also thoroughly established in open waste places in the settled areas.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Soakai 320
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 91
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Parks 16164
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15354
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Moseley s.n. (p.p.), Ilolahia 154
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15037
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3906)
Taxon name on voucher: Capsicum frutescens
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Soakai 933
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 49)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 59)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 18)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 14)
Not seen in 1961 or 1963.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 38)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 107)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 11)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 157)
Voucher cited: Bourne 13 (K)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 34)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 5, 8)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 32)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 137)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52125 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7225 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 61)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 194)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7175 (US)

Additional information:
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).
Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database.

Additional online information about Capsicum frutescens is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Capsicum frutescens as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Capsicum frutescens may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Anderson, Donald. 1951. The plants of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 7. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 4 pp. + 7 pp. appendix.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM748(Hardy 39).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM746(Berry 56).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Vegetation and flora of Wake Island. Atoll Research Bulletin 67. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 20 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1969. Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 132. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 13 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1969. Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 123. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Heine, Heino. 1976. Acanthacées, Bignoniacées, Boraginacées, Solanacées. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Vol. 7, 212 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McMullen, C. K. 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Comstock Pub. Assoc., Ithaca, N.Y. 370 p.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa‘ab: Plants, People and Ecology in Yap State. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG38744(F. Sohl 81).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34738(David H. Lorence 8540).

Ohba, T. 1994. Flora and vegetation of the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Biological Expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In A. Asakua & T. Furuki, eds.  Natural History Research, Special issue no. 1, Chiba, Japan: Natural History Museum and Institute. pp. 13-69.

Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. 2003. Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii. 91 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. 1996. A botanical reconnaissance of the proposed Compact-impact road alignment on Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau. U. of Guam Herbarium Cont. No. 32. 78 pp.

Rivers, Julie. 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific. 16 pp. plus "List of the higher plants of Diego Garcia".

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World Health Organization. 1998. Medical plants in the South Pacific. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila. 254 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.


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This page was created on 17 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 6 NOV 2011.