Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Calendula officinalis
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jin zhan ju

English: calendula, calendula-double, common marigold, garden-marigold, marigold, pot-marigold, red buff, ruddles, Scotch-marigold, Scottish-marigold

French: souci officinal

Hawaiian: melekule

Japanese: tō-kin-sen-ka

Korean: geumjanhwa

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect or ascending, annual or short-lived perennial herb, sometimes somewhat woody toward base, (10)-15-50 cm tall. Stems densely clothed in short, erect, glandular hairs, usually becoming glabrous below, much-branched. Basal and lower cauline leaves sparsely to moderately clothed in simple and glandular hairs, ciliate, usually narrow-obovate, sometimes elliptic or ± orbicular, entire, with few minute scattered marginal teeth, or rarely remotely dentate, obtuse to acute and mucronate, apetiolate and long-cuneate, 6-20 x 1.5-5 cm; upper cauline leaves similar to lower but becoming smaller, oblong to lanceolate, broad-based and often ± amplexicaul. Capitula solitary, 35-85 mm in diameter. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, glandular and ciliate, lanceolate, acuminate, 10-15 mm long, the inner with more conspicuous membranous margins. Ray florets (20)-40-60, in 1-several rows; ligules usually orange, sometimes pale orange or yellow, clearly exceeding bracts, (8)-12-30 mm long; disc florets numerous, usually orange, sometimes pale orange or yellow, rarely brownish black. Achenes glabrous or sparsely hairy, usually of 3 types; outermost achenes strongly incurved, long-beaked, 12-18 mm in diameter, with small stout spines on back, usually alternating with shorter, short-beaked, broadly 3-winged, tuberculate or smooth-backed achenes; inner achenes enclosed by outer, tuberculate on back, 4-7 mm in diameter"  (Webb et al., 1988; 200).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "waste places, rubbish dumps, coastal sites" (Webb et al., 1988; 200).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Probable origin Mediterranean region; cultivated and naturalized in temperate regions (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Naturalized in village.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619230)
Taxon name on voucher: Calendula officinalis L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 661383)
Taxon name on voucher: Calendula officinalis L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Widely cultivated, occasional garden escape, in the Orange and Tamworth areas, possibly naturalized in the Nowra area".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 200)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 JUL 2013 and was last updated on 6 AUG 2013.