Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Buddleja asiatica
Lour., Scrophulariaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bai bei feng

English: dog tail

Hawaiian: huelo ‘ilio

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs 1-2 (-5) m tall. Leaves thin chartaceous, lanceolate, 5-12 cm long, 1-3.5 cm broad, acuminate, cuneate at base, margins entire, crenate or serrulate, gray-white or fulvous-tomentose beneath, costa and veins instinct above, raised beneath, veins 8-10 per side, arcuate-ascending, anastomosing near margins, reticulations indistinct; petioles 0-5 mm long; stipules narrow. Inflorescences of terminal and axillary slender drooping paniculate spikes, 8-14 cm long, densely fulvous or gray-tomentose; calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm long, lobes triangular-oblong; corolla tubular, straight, to 1 cm long, white, pubescent or glabrescent without, lobes short; stamens inserted above middle of tube. Capsules ellipsoid, 7-8 mm long"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Shrub 2-3 m tall, the branches lax, young growth stellate-pubescent; leaves serrulate, dull, often somewhat olive-gray green, tawny or whitish pubescent beneath, acuminate-caudate; petiole 3-9 mm long; flowers in dense terminal and axillary elongate bracteate, often nodding spikes, up to 20 cm long, dull white; calyx 1-2 mm long, pubescent; corolla white, villous; ovary 2-3-celled; capsule 3-4 mm long, subglobose, calyx persistent at base, with many seeds about 0.3 mm long (microscopically winged)" (Stone, 1970; p. 473).

Habitat/ecology:  "Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai‘i up to 4000 ft. elevation"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic to wet, primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 415).  In Papua New Guinea (native), "a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites, or secondary vegetation.  In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips.  It has a wide altitudinal tolerance, occurring from 80 to 2900 m altitude"  (Conn, 1995; p. 129).

Propagation:  Wind-borne seeds.

Native range:  Eastern Asia, widespread in cultivation and as a weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 210)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 156424)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588145)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 473)
Voucher cited: Stone 3803 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 210)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23005)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 156425)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 490177)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 506978)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 698978)
Taxon name on voucher: Buddleja asiatica Lour.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 415-416)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & T. Menard 10922 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109929 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 415-416)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 415-416)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 415-416)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
cultivated
Conn, Barry J., ed. (1995) (p. 129)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 316)
In thickets, on recent slides in open places, etc.; chiefly at medium altitudes, sometimes at sea level, and ascending to 2,000 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open places, at edge of open forests, open woodlands; 0-2800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 240-241)
In thin forests or thickets.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 20)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"On mountain slopes at low elevations (600-1,400 m), common".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  See also B. davidii and B. madagascariensis.

Control: 

Chemical:  "Sensitive to glyphosate and hormone-type herbicides. Very sensitive to triclopyr ester applied to basal bark (10% product in oil) and triclopyr amine in foliar application at 2% in water". (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 DEC 2010.