Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Brucea javanica
(L.) Merr., Simaroubaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Brucea amarissima (Lour.) Desv. ex Gomes; Brucea sumatrana Roxb.; Gonus amarissimus Lour.; Rhus javanica L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ya dan zi

English: Java brucea, Macassar kernels

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrubs or small trees. Young branches, petioles, and inflorescences yellow tomentose. Leaves 20-40 cm; leaflets 3-15; petiolule 4-8 mm; blades ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-10(-13) x 2.5-5(-6.5) cm, base broadly cuneate or nearly rounded, usually somewhat oblique, margin serrate, apex acuminate, both surfaces villous, especially along veins and abaxially. Panicles 15-25(-40) cm in males, ca. half as long in females. Flowers small, dark purple, 1.5-2 mm in diam. Male flowers: pedicel slender, ca. 3 mm; sepals densely puberulent, 0.5-1 x 0.3-0.5 mm; petals sparsely puberulent or nearly glabrous, 1-2 x 0.5-1 mm; filaments subulate, ca. 0.6 mm; anthers ca. 0.4 mm. Female flowers: pedicel ca. 2.5 mm; sepals and petals same as in males; stamens rudimentary. Druparia 1-4, free, oblong-ovoid, 6-8 x 4-6 mm, gray-black when ripe; exocarp reticulately wrinkled when dry; endocarp hard bony. Seeds yellow-white, ovoid, thinly membranous, with copious oil, terribly bitter"  (Flora of China).

"An often simple-stemmed shrub or small tree 1-4 m high.  Its leaves, up to 50 cm long, have 9 or 11 leaflets (3-15 elsewhere) with blades predominantly ovate, up to 14 x 5 cm, and coarsely serrate.  The attractive small flowers have the sepals and petals rich purple and the gynoecium pale green, with purple-tinged styles.  The drupes (usually 1-3 per flower maturing) change from green through blue and at maturity become purple or black"  (Smith, 1985; p. 487).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "locally naturalized at elevations from near sea level to about 300 m in light forest, thickets, or coconut plantations, or on the edges of clearings"  (Smith, 1985; p. 487).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Ceylon through southeastern Asia to southern China and Taiwan and throughout Malesia to northern Australia; introduced into Ponape, Fiji and perhaps elsewhere.  It has apparently escaped from cultivation in Fiji and is now well naturalized at least on Taveuni"  (Smith, 1985; p. 487).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 487)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Most likely introduced.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 136)
As Brucea amarissima (Lour.) Gomes. Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58525 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 9560 (COM, NY, PTBG), L. Stemmermann 2930 (BISH)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 487)
Vouchers cited: Smith 8182, DA 8907, DA 15851, DA 11508
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 487)
Voucher cited: 13227
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013)
Harold L. Lyon Arboretum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 35)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher: Lorence 9888 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1401)
Taxon name on voucher: Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9495)
Taxon name on voucher: Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 181)
Taxon name on voucher: Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Most likely introduced.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open shrubby forests in foothills; below 100-1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 197)
In thickets and thin forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 20)
Vulnerable
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open shrubby forests in foothills; below 100-1000 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 13 APR 2008 and was last updated on 13 NOV 2008.