Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Brosimum alicastrum
Sw., Moraceae
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Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 2 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Brosimum alicastrum)

Other Latin names:  Alicastrum brownei Kuntze; Brosimum bernadetteae Woodson; Brosimum columbianum S. F. Blake; Brosimum conzattii Standl.; Brosimum gentlei Lundell; Brosimum latifolium Standl.; Brosimum terrabanum Pittier; Brosimum uleanum Mildbr.; Helicostylis bolivarensis Pittier; Helicostylis latifolia Pittier; Helicostylis ojoche K. Schum. ex Pittier; Piratinera alicastrum (Sw.) Baill.; Piratinera terrabana (Pittier) Lundell

Common name(s): [more details]

English: breadnut

Other: more common names

Spanish: more common names

Habit:  tree

Description:  "In nature this large, evergreen tree may attain a height of 40 m and a diameter of more than a meter (Pennington and Sarukhan, 1968). The lower trunk is fluted with prominent buttresses, and upon injury, a yellowish-white latex is exuded (Fig. 2a). Fruits are produced only once a year, flowers generally appearing between November and February, and fruitfall commencing between March and June (Pardo-Tejeda and Sánchez-Muñoz, 1980). The yellow to red-orange fruit is 1-2cm in diameter and contains only one seed (Fig. 3). Estimates of fruit yield range from 50-75kg/tree (Martínez, 1936; González, 1939; Puleston, 1968), but it is important to note that natural populations in Mexico are dioecious (Berg, 1972; Peters, unpubl.); therefore not all trees bear fruit." (Peters & Pardo-Tejeda)

"Trees, to 30 m. Branchlets gray-brown, glabrous. Leaves: stipules clasping, ca. 4 mm; petiole 0.5-0.7 cm. Leaf blade 5-15 2-6 cm, base broadly obtuse to rounded, apex obtuse to short-acuminate, nearly cuspidate; surfaces abaxially and adaxially glabrous; veins 12-18 pairs. Inflorescences nearly globose, 3-6 mm diam.; peduncle slender, equal to or shorter than head. Staminate flowers: anther ca. 1 mm diam. Pistillate flowers: style 1.5-8.5 mm; stigmas 0.2-8 mm, unequal. Syncarps yellow, 1.5-2 cm diam. . . . ¶Flowering all year" (JSTOR Global Plants)

Habitat/ecology:  "Forest, Intervened forest, High stubble. . . ¶It thrives in covered sites, of limestone nature, with short periods of insolation, in plains or terrains with steep slopes, on very inclined limestone slopes, although it develops better in the fertile plains." (GBIF, translated to English by Google Translate)

Altitude range: 0-50 m. (JSTOR Global Plants)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  Mexico, Central America & Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), South America (Brazil, Guyana; Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) (GRIN)

"Native to tropical America. Its extension goes from the south of Mexico through Central America to Colombia, Peru and Venezuela and in the Caribbean Islands: Cuba, Jamaica and Trinidad." (GBIF, translated to English by Google Translate)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Central America
Central America (non-Pacific rim)
Belize native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514 (see ref. for more detailed info)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Ecuador native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Invasive Species Specialist Group (2017)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands
Cuba native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica (country) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
South America (non-Pacific rim)
South America (non-Pacific rim)
Bolivia native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
South America (non-Pacific rim)
South America (non-Pacific rim)
Brazil native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514 (see ref. for more detailed info)
South America (non-Pacific rim)
South America (non-Pacific rim)
Guyana native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514
Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180514

Comments:  "Brosimum alicastrum, native to tropical America, is cultivated in tropical Florida as an ornamental; it rarely escapes." (JSTOR Global Plants)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Brosimum alicastrum, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.