Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Bromus lithobius
Trin., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Bromus andinus Phil.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Chilean brome

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial; caespitose. Culms 40-80 cm long. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths antrorsely scabrous; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 4 mm long. Leaf-blades 9-15 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins ciliate. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate; 15 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 14-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 6 mm long; 0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 7 mm long; 0.66-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 7 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8-11 mm long; chartaceous; keeled; 7 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 3-6 mm long overall. Palea gaping. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear"  (GrassBase).

Description from Flora of New Zealand.

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "waste ground.  Occurs on low fertility lighter, summer dry soils, often on roadsides, but does not survive trampling or drought"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 364).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Argentina and Chile (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 364)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2011.