Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Bambusa oldhamii
Munro, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 1 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Bambusa oldhamii)

Other Latin names:  Bambusa atrovirens T. H. Wen; Bambusa oldhami Munro; Dendrocalamopsis atro-virens (T. H. Wen) P. C. Keng ex W. T. Lin; Dendrocalamopsis oldhamii (Munro) P. C. Keng; Leleba oldhamii (Munro) Nakai; Sino-calamus oldhamii (Munro) McClure; Sinocalamus oldhamii (Munro) McClure

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Oldham's bamboo, giant timber bamboo

Habit:  tree-like grass

Description:  "HABIT Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 10001600 cm long; woody; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 1720 cm long; light green. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one, or two, or three. Culm-sheaths 7.5 cm long; glabrous. Culm-sheath blade triangular; erect, or spreading; 0.6 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths striately veined; hirsute. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Collar with external ligule. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 5.5 cm long; 12 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with 1012 secondary veins; without cross veins. Leaf-blade surface pubescent; hairy abaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in oblong clusters; 711 cm between clusters; with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; prophyllate below lateral spikelets; leafless between clusters.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 610 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 2426 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite; obscured by lemmas.

GLUMES Glumes several.

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; 1011 mm long; without keel. Lemma apex acute; mucronate. Palea keels ciliate. Palea surface pubescent, or hirsute. Palea apex obtuse. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 2; membranous; ciliate. Anthers 6; anther tip with extended connective and pubescent. Stigmas 3. Ovary umbonate.

DISTRIBUTION Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Australasia: New Zealand. Pacific: north-central." (GrassBase)

Habitat/ecology:  "Plains." Cultivation: "Requires a humus rich soil in full sun or dappled shade in warm humid conditions[ 200 ]. Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually - these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world[ K ]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[ 200 ]. Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 - 3 years before usually dying." "Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil." "Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge" (Plants for a Future)

Habitats: "Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge" (Plants for a Future)

(If you have information on this species' native/natural habitat, please pass this info along to PIER.)

Propagation:  Propagation can be by seed. "The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind." Also, "[e]ach plant produces a number of new stems annually - these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves." (Plants for a Future)

Propagation: "Seed - surface sow as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse at about 20°c. Do not allow the compost to dry out. Germination usually takes place fairly quickly so long as the seed is of good quality, though it can take 3 - 6 months. Grow on in a lightly shaded place in the greenhouse until large enough to plant out. Seed is rarely available. Division in spring as new growth commences. Take divisions with at least three canes in the clump, trying to cause as little root disturbance to the main plant as possible. Grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse in pots of a high fertility sandy medium. Mist the foliage regularly until plants are established. Plant them out into their permanent positions when a good root system has developed, which can take a year or more [200]." (Plants for a Future)

Native range:  China, Taiwan (GRIN)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  If you know of other invaded habitats or impacts, please let us know.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia
Australia   Plants for a Future (year unknown)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Plants for a Future (year unknown)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Flora of China (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
Japan
Japan
Japan   Plants for a Future (year unknown)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia introduced
cultivated
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
cultivated
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Plants for a Future (year unknown)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island cultivated
Flora of China (year unknown)
accessed 20180904 "Bambusa oldhamii is commonly cultivated in Taiwan for its very high-quality shoots."
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South America (non-Pacific rim)
South America (non-Pacific rim)
Brazil cultivated
Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto/Sanquetta/Corte, Ana Paula Dalla/Rodrigues, Aurélio Louren&?ccedil;o/Mongon, Francelo (2015)
accessed 20180904
United States of America
United States
United States introduced
cultivated
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180904
United States of America
United States
United States   Plants for a Future (year unknown)
?
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
?
?
?   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)

Comments:  Used as a windbreak on Pacific islands (Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands, p. 218)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Bambusa oldhamii, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 4 SEP 2018.