Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Avena fatua
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ye yan mai

English: common wild oat, flaxgrass, oatgrass, spring wild oat, spring wild oat, wheat oats, wild oat

French: avéron, avoine folle, avoine sauvage, folle avoine

Japanese: cha-hiki, karasu-mugi

Spanish: avena guacha, avena loca, avena negra, avena silvestre, avenilla, balango

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Stout annuals; culms (2.5-) 4.5-9 (-19) dm tall.  Sheaths glabrous, smooth, with margins overlapping and eventually spreading; ligule 2-5.5 (-7) mm long, obtuse, erose-ciliate, often pubescent; blades flat, 3-10 (-15) mm wide, scabrous to somewhat pilose.  Inflorescences paniculate, 10-25 (-38) cm long, open; spikelets 2-3 (4)-flowered, rachilla densely pubescent, readily disarticulating above glumes and between florets; glumes prominently (7-) 9-11-nerved, first glume narrowly lanceolate, 19-26 (-29) mm long, apex acuminate, second glume lanceolate, 20-28 (-30) mm long, apex acuminate; lemmas 14-20 (-23) mm long, 5-7-nerved, the nerves often obscure on the glossy, indurate lower 1/2, glabrous to moderately pilose, bilobed , the lobes less than 1 mm long, callus usually densely pilose, awns usually only on first 2 florets, (18-) 28-45 (-52) mm long, stout, tightly twisted below the knee, tapering above; palea firm, the keels ciliate.  Caryopsis pale brown, linear-lanceoloid, ca. 6 mm long, appressed pubescent"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1499).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and woodland, riparian habitats, coastal sand dunes and beaches.  A grass that prefers temperate and cool climates, and grows best in moist soils.  The grass forms dense swards that displace native grass and forb species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 63).

In Hawai‘i, "common to occasional in pastures and along roadsides, 150-1,280 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1499-1500).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Eurasia and northern Africa, introduced into southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the New World"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1499).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1499-1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1499-1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1499-1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1499-1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1499-1500)
Voucher cited: Hitchcock 13749 (US)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 83)
Probably merely a casual here, altitude about 1,500 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 40)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 24)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 24)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Weed of cultivated fields, grassy mountain slopes, roadsides and other disturbed places; below 4300 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 323)
On farmlands and abandoned lands.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 24)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Also var. glabrata Peterm.
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 24)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 303)
"A problem weed of crops, on roadsides and waste land and also in brackish soil and reclamation areas".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Weed of cultivated fields, grassy mountain slopes, roadsides and other disturbed places; below 4300 m".

Control: 

Physical:  "Plants normally do not reproduce from vegetative parts, and mechanical removal may control the plant. Burning can reduce the number of seeds on or near the soil surface".

Chemical:  "Emerging seedlings can be killed by soil-applied herbicides such as trifluralin, barban or asulam"  (Weber, 2003; p. 63).


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This page was created on 9 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2013.