Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Arundo donax
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.)).
Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.(Florida))).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: lu zhu

English: bamboo reed, giant reed, green bamboo reed, Spanish reed, wild cane

Fijian: ngasau ni vavalangi

French: canne de Provence, grand roseau

Samoan: fiso pālagi, fiso pālagi, ‘ofe, ‘ofe, ‘ofe teu fale, ‘ofe teu fale

Spanish: caña común, caña de Castilla, caña de la reina, caña de techar, carrizo

Tongan: kaho, kaho f333; lalahi, kaho pāpālangi

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Large perennials; culms erect or arching, up to 8 m tall, unbranched or branched above, arising from thick, scaly rhizomes, nodes glabrous, usually concealed, internodes hollow, up to 4 cm in diameter.  Leaves strongly distichous, distributed rather uniformly along culm except on old stems; sheaths longer than internodes and strongly overlapping, glaucous, glabrous to sometimes sparsely long-villous at throat; ligule a thin, whitish or brownish, minutely ciliate membrane, 1-1.5 mm long; blades thick and coriaceous, 45-60 cm long, 4-6 cm wide, glabrous, glaucous, striate, margins scabrous, leaf bases broader than sheaths, with prominent, triangular, brownish flanges, ciliate along margins.  Inflorescences paniculate, ovoid, 40-70 cm long, plumose, dense, the branches stiffly ascending; spikelets densely clustered along secondary or tertiary branches, 13-17 mm long, 4-5 flowered, rachilla glabrous; glumes hyaline, brownish or purplish, 11-13 mm long, narrow, acuminate, scabrous on the indistinct keel; lemmas membranous, lanceolate-ovate, 8-15 mm long, tapering to a short straight awn arising between 2 delicate lateral teeth, 3-7-nerved, usually 3 major ones anastomosing with midnerve, lower portions on dorsal surface of lemma heavily bearded with long silky whitish hairs, the hairs 8-10 mm long; palea whitish, membranous, 5-10 mm long, ca 1/2 as long as lemma, scabrid on keels and pubescent near base between them, hyaline, truncate.  Caryopsis elongate, 1-1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1498-1499).

"Grande herbacée pérenne dressée, formant des touffes denses atteignant 2 à 8 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à son allure de canne ou de bambou, à ses tiges de 1 à 4 cm de diamètre portant des feuilles de couleur vert-pâle avec de grands lobes basaux et à sa grande inflorescence (30 à 60 cm de long) dressée de couleur crème à brune" (Meyer, 2008; p. 31).

Habitat/ecology:  In moist areas, such as along ditches and riverbanks.  "Once established, giant reed can form huge clones, sometimes covering hundreds of acres.  It is highly flammable and resprouts quickly after burning.  Fires help transform communities of native plants into solid stands of giant reed, changing riverbank forests from flood- to fire-defined habitats" (Randall, et al., 1996).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in coastal areas, often in thickets" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1498-1499).  In Fiji, widespread on hillsides, in open forest, and along roadsides, up to about 200 m (Smith, 1979; pp. 299-300). In New Caledonia, "parfois planté, notamment pour stabiliser les talus des routes. Largement répandu à l'état spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 56).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Rhizomes; fragments of stems, often carried by water.

Native range:  Tropical Asia and the Mediterranean region, now widely naturalized in warm temperate to tropical areas.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 621 (CHR), 1962, P. Ralston s.n.(CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 31, 41)
"Nous l’avons observée plantée au village de Hanga Roa et naturalisée dans le fond du cratère de Rano Kau où elle forme des touffes denses mais localisées" (Meyer, 2008; p. 31).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
"One plant".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 475, 521, 551)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/360)1704
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 64)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 122231)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: S.F. Glassman 2521 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 122237)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 299-300)
Vouchers cited: DA 10826, Degener 15170, DA 16809, DA 7955, DA 7589, Wilder 1232
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 31631)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 31632)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 31633)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 122234)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 122235)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Also var. versicolor (P. Miller) J.S. Stokes.
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: Grant 55266
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 97)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: Moore 197
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 13723)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 97)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 97)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Also var. versicolor (P. Miller) J.S. Stokes. Voucher cited: J. Florence 2378 (PAP)
Ornementale commune.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Also var. versicolor (P. Miller) J.S. Stokes.
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 188)
Rare.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1498-1499)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1498-1499)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Kennedy, Barbara H./James, Shelley A./Imada, Clyde T. (2010) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & S.A. James 2008-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1498-1499)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1498-1499)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 66-67)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58742 (US), Scully 171N (US?), Thaman & Manner 22318 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 95 (SUVA)
Spontaneous in some areas.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répanue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 56)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Cribs 853
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répanue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 56)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 84)
Voucher: BMW 6541 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 425868)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 428449)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 699709)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BNM 10089)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1974) (voucher ID: BNM 10052)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 33)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28621)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417684)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15767
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 122232)
Taxon name on voucher: Arundo donax L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 50)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 12, 26)
Cette grande herbacée est abondamment naturalisée en bordure de routes et de pistes où elle aurait été initialement planté pour stabiliser les talus.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 22)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 1)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 323)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 22)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 419)
"Occasional garden escape. Roadsides and sandy waste land".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 16)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 105)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  An ornamental variety, A. donax var. versicolor (Mill.) Stokes is widely cultivated. It has white-striped leaves.

Reported to be under cultivation in Fiji.

An invasive species in riparian areas in California (US).

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Cut down close to ground. Dig out entire root/rhizome mass. Dispose of at refuse transfer station or by burning. While slashed stems can be left or dumped, stumps always resprout and digging root masses can leave rhizomes behind"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

"La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plants est difficile en raison de la capacité de multiplication végétative de l’espèce" (Meyer, 2008; p. 31).

Chemical: "Herbicides must be used to ensure that the root mass is killed because even tiny fragments of rhizome can grow into new colonies.  Both glyphosate and fluazipop herbicides have proven effective, especially when applied after flowering.  Because this species tends to spread downstream, it's important to remove infestations from the upper reaches of a watershed first"  (Bell, 1996).  "Cut down close to ground. Spray regrowth with Amitrole (10ml/L) + Gallant (10ml/L) + penetrant before it reaches 60 cm. Continue respraying at under 60 cm until regrowth ceases (normally requires 4-6 treatments). Minimise herbicide contact with soil and other vegetation as Amitrole is non-selective, residual and corrosive. Stray emergent shoots can be cut at ground level and 10 ml undiluted Amitrole injected into each stem"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

"La lutte chimique par application d’herbicide sur les racines (avec du glyphosate ou du paraquat) est délicate en raison de la proximité du lac de cratère" (Meyer, 2008; p. 31).

Additional information:
Report (PDF format) from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii".
Arundo donax factsheet (from PCA-APWG).
Giant reed (Arundo donax) factsheet (from Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation's invasive plant species list).
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Photo and additional information at the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Team Arundo del Norte web site.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the publication "Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control".
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.
Article from "Wildland Weeds".
Photos and other information from Chileflora.

Additional online information about Arundo donax is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Arundo donax as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Arundo donax may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 0. Voucher specimen #BNM10089(Otobed, D.O. PW-10089).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1974. Voucher specimen #BNM10052(Otobed, D.O. P-10052).

Belov, Michail. 2013. Chileflora (online resource).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1926. Voucher specimen #BISH 13723 (J.W.Moore 197).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 122231 (Wilder, G.P. 1045).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 122235 (Wilder, G.P. 1232).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 122234 (Degener, O. 15170).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 122237 (Glassman, S.F. 2521).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 122232 (Yuncker, T.G. 15767).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 31633 (Pillay, S. 12165).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28621 (Bristol, M.L. 2090).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 31631 (Smith, A.C. 16809).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 31632 (Smith, A.C. 16809).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417684 (Whistler, W.A. W 615).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 425868 (Otobed, D.O. PW-10089).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 428449 (Otobed, D.O.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 699709 (Otobed, D.O.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 2. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 137 pp. + plates.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Kennedy, Barbara H./James, Shelley A./Imada, Clyde T. 2010. New plant records from Herbarium Pacificum for 2008. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:19-26.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. 93 p.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Randall, J. M./Marinelli, J. (eds.). 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook 149. 111 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.