Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Anredera cordifolia
(Ten.) Steenis, Basellaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Boussingaultia cordifolia Ten.; Boussingaultia gracilis Miers

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: luo kui shu

English: basell-potatoes, bridal wreath, lamb's tails, Madeira vine, mignonette vine

Hawaiian: ‘uala hūpē

Maori (Cook Islands): pia, tāpau

Niuean: filikafa

Rapa Nui: luna luna

Spanish: enredadera del mosquito, parra de Madeira

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Stems climbing, slender and often reddish.  Leaves subsessile or with petiole to 1-(2) cm long, commonly with small irregular tubers in their axils.  Lamina 2-11-(13) x 1.75-10-(11) cm, broadly ovate, often involute, scarcely succulent to succulent according to degree of exposure, shining; base subcordate or cordate; apex obtuse.  Racemes simple or 2-4-branched, pendent, to ca 18 cm long excluding common peduncle, with numerous small, white, fragrant flowers.  Pedicels 2-3 mm long; bracts 1.5-1.8 mm long, lanceolate-subulate.  Lower bracteoles 0.5-1 mm long, cupulate; upper bracteoles ca 2-2.5 mm long, suborbicular.  Tepals 2-3 mm long, elliptic-oblong to broadly elliptic.  Filaments narrow-triangular, widely divergent, bending outwards near base.  Style 1, shorter than stamens; branches 1/2-3/4 length of fused part; stigmas clavate"  (Webb et al., 1988; pp. 352-353).

"Liane herbacée pérenne et grimpante, atteignant 3 à 6 m de long, reconnaissable à ses feuilles un peu charnues de forme ovale ou en coeur, ses inflorescences composées de petites fleurs blanches.et ses tubercules aériens (« aerial tubers » en anglais) qui pendent des tiges" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).

Habitat/ecology:  "...in Queensland and New South Wales [Australia], it is a weed of riparian vegetation, the edges of rainforest, tall open forest and damp sclerophyll forests". (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 93).  "A devastating weed which invades moist forest and rainforest edges, blankets the ground and envelops the canopy, restricts light, encourages disease, prevents germination of native plants. Weight can break down trees. Helps to destroy rainforest"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).  In New Zealand, "Waste land, especially scrub-covered areas such as coastal gullies. Where it has become naturalised its smothering habit makes it a nuisance and this is even more true on tropical Pacific Islands to the north [of New Zealand]" (Webb et al., 1988; pp 352-353).  In Hawai‘i, "commonly cultivated and often escaping, now sparingly naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 381, 1864). In New Caledonia, "aujourd'hui assez rare en terrains vagues et fourrés secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 21).

Propagation:  "Stems bear thousands of long-lived aerial tubers which form clusters high in the vine. Underground tubers, which may be football sized, grow on rhizomes up to a metre deep.  Grows from both kinds of tuber and from pieces of rhizome. Rarely produces seed. Often dumped on bushland edges. Both tubers and rhizomes can be washed down waterways"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).  Cultivated as an ornamental and thus spread by humans.

"La croissance de ses tiges en climat chaud et humide peut atteindre 1 m par semaine, ses tubercules peuvent survivre plus de 5 ans avec des densités de plus de 1500 tubercules par m². Elle est également capable de se reproduire végétativement par fragmentation des tiges et des racines" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).

Native range:  Tropical South America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"An escape from cultivation, easily spreading and propagating itself by means of the stem tubers". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1715 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"An escape from cultivation, easily spreading and propagating itself by means of the stem tubers". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 608 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 797 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 21, 28)
"Lors de cette mission, nous l’avons observé subspontanée ou naturalisée dans les jardins et en bordure de route du village de Hanga Roa, grimpant sur les murs, les clôtures et les arbres. Elle est également naturalisée dans le jardin de la CONAF à Mataveri et présente un début d’invasion sévère dans le jardin botanique de Vaitea où des tapis denses de plantules ont été observés" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 474, 520, 551)
Voucher cited: Danton C(806)704
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 84)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Voucher: Flynn 7004 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 133662)
Taxon name on voucher: Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 343)
Taxon name on voucher: Anredera cordifolia
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 147529)
Taxon name on voucher: Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 87)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Nagata, Kenneth M. (1995) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Nagata 3502 (HLA)
At the edge of pineapple fields.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 381)
Voucher cited: Neal 1182 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 12139, MacKee 16239, MacKee 29740
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (pp. 352-353)
"Waste land, especially scrub-covered areas such as coastal gullies".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 77-78)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168867, CHR 168871
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 10156 (BISH), Yuncker 10211 (BISH)
"Growing in thickets on cliffs near the sea".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 33)
as Boussingaultia gracilis Miers, f pseudobaselloides Hauman; voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11209
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 87)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 93)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 93)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 80)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
As Boussingaultia cordifolia Ten.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (pp. 352-353)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A serious problem on the Kermadec Islands (Raoul). A weed species in Australia and New Zealand.

Control: 

Physical:  "Manual removal must include the removal of all tubers".  "Pull plant (all year round), burn all parts or place all parts in black plastic bags and leave to 'cook' in sun.  Do not dump aerial tubers in the sea, as they sprout wherever they wash up"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

"La lutte physique et chimique est difficile en raison de ses capacités de reproduction végétative par tubercules. La pose d’une bâche en plastique sous les lianes lors de la coupe manuelle est recommandée afin de récupérer tous les tubercules aériens et les tiges coupées" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).

Chemical:  "Effective chemical control is done by applying glyphosate or fluoroxypyr.  Repeated applications are necessary to achieve long-term control"  (Weber, 2003; p. 48).

"1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g /L) or glyphosate (100ml/L) or Tordon Brushkiller (100ml/L) or triclopyr 600 EC (100ml/L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (500ml/L). Pull out and rake up all aerial tubers, burn on site or 'cook' in black plastic bags left in the sun.
2. Spray (spring to autumn): 3g metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg + 100ml glyphosate + 10ml penetrant/10L (knapsack) or 30g metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg + 1L glyphosate + 100ml penetrant/100L (spraygun)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

"La lutte chimique consiste en la pulvérisation d’un herbicide (glyphosate) sur les feuilles avant la maturation des tubercules, la coupe et le traitement chimique des liane (triclopyr), et le trempage des tubercules dans du glyphosate" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).

Additional information:
Report (PDF format) from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii".
Fact sheet, including control information, from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, New Zealand.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).
Information and photos at Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland.
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Anredera cordifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Anredera cordifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Anredera cordifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 133662 (Wilder, G.P. 868).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1970. Voucher specimen #BISH 147529 (Parham, B. 17392).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Harley, Barbara. 2009. Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland. (online resource).

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Nagata, Kenneth M. 1995. New Hawaiian plant records IV. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 42:10-13.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG343(Tim Flynn 7004).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.