Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Anagallis arvensis
L., Primulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: liu li fan lu

English: bird's-eye, blue pimpernel, common pimpernel, poison chickweed, poisonous pimpernel, poisonweed, poor man's weatherglass, red chickweed, scarlet pimpernel, shepherd's clock, shepherd's weatherglass, wink-a-peep

French: buglosse des champs, morgeline, morgeline d'été, mouron, mouron des champs, mouron rouge

Japanese: rurihakobe

Spanish: coralillo, hierba del pájaro, murajes, pilpis, pimpinela azul, pimpinela escarlata, pimpinela rosada

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual, biennial or short-lived perennial herbs; stems quadrangular, prostrate or decumbent, often rooting at the nodes, 1-6 (-9) dm long, forming compact mats.  Leaves opposite or rarely whorled, ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 8-20 (-25) mm long, 4-14 (-18) mm wide, glabrous, apex acute, base rounded, truncate, or subcordate, sessile and somewhat clasping the stem.  Flowers on slender pedicels 5-40 mm long, recurved in fruit; sepals lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, margins scarious toward base; corolla salmon, sometimes blue or various paler colors, the lobes 4-5 (-10) mm long, minutely ciliate toward apex; staminal filaments hirsute with pale bluish hairs.  Capsules papery, 4-6 mm in diameter, circumscissile, the style persistent. Seeds dark brown, ca. 0.8 mm long, minutely pitted"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1077).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, seasonally moist, disturbed areas, especially at low elevations, 0-2,450 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1077). In New Zealand, "common to abundant in cultivated land, waste places and most other open disturbed sites, especially stony and sandy areas, depleted and open pastures, coastal cliffs, dry river beds" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 993).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:   Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, now widely naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1077).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A common weed of wasteland and exposed soil, especially near the coast". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1941 (K), J.D. McComish 74 (K), J.D. McComish 98 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"A common weed of wasteland and exposed soil, especially near the coast". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1208 (K), P.S. Green 1485 (A, K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 222)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Morro Juanango introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-6 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-6 (BISH). Occasional near quarters and on runway in compacted sand.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & VanderWerf 9871 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 287)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
f. arvensis
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 119)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2412, Schmid 1839 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 119)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 3789, Denizot s.n., Veillon 235 (NOU), MacKee 44130; ssp. coerulea Schreb., vouchers cited: MacKee 5065, Suprin 2056 (NOU)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 993)
"Coastal and lowland areas throughout. Common to abundant in cultivated land, waste places and most other open disturbed sites, especially stony and sandy areas, depleted and open pastures, coastal cliffs, dry river beds".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 131-132)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1077)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-3)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-3)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 260)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 171)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 171)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated areas, wasteland, roadsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Zhejiang
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 120)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 262)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 171)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 993)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 171)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated areas, wasteland, roadsides.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 171, 175)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 10 JAN 2011.