Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Amaranthus viridis
L., Amaranthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Amaranthus gracilis Desf., nom. nud.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: kuletes apaká

Chinese: zhou guo xian

English: green amaranth, pigweed, Prince of Wales feather, slender amaranth, tropical green amaranth

Fijian: moca, ndriti, ngasau ni vuaka, tubua, tumbua

French: amarante verte, brede malabar, fleur de jalousie

Hawaiian: ‘aheahea, pakai, pākaikai, pakapakai

Hindi: chauraiya, chauraiya, choroiya

I-Kiribati: te moota, te mota

Japanese: aobiyu, honaga-inubiyu

Maori (Cook Islands): pu‘ekao, va‘ine ‘ara

Marquesan: puaio, upo‘oti‘i

Niuean: katule

Spanish: amarantus, bledo, bredo blanco

Tahitian: ea ea mata, huinihera, upooti

Tongan: longolongo‘uha, tupu‘a

Ulithian: waluwol

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Monoecious annual herbs; stems erect or occasionally ascending, 1-8 (-10) dm long, sparingly to densely branched, striate, glabrous and usually becoming pubescent with multicellular hairs above.  Leaves deltate-ovate to narrowly rhombic, blades 2-7 cm long, 1.5-5.5 cm wide, glabrous or lower surface pilose along the veins, apex usually narrow and with a small narrow emargination, petioles 1-10 cm long.  Flowers green, in slender, axillary or terminal and often paniculate spikes, sometimes in axillary clusters in lower part of plant, both sexes mixed throughout the spikes, but pistillate flowers more numerous, bracts and bracteoles whitish, deltate-ovate to broadly lanceolate, membranous, with a short, pale or reddish awn; sepals 3 (4), those of staminate flowers ovate-oblong, ca. 1.5 mm long, apex acute, mucronate, those of pistillate flowers narrowly spatulate to oblong, 1.3-1.8 mm long, apex more or less mucronate; stigmas 2-3.  Fruit subglobose, 1.3-1.5 mm long, not or only slightly exceeding the sepals, indehiscent or rupturing irregularly at maturity, conspicuously rugose throughout.  Seeds dark brown to black, more or less shiny, slightly compressed, 1-1.3 mm long, reticulate and with shallow outgrowths on the reticulum"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 189).

Habitat/ecology:  "A weed, but rarely also cultivated (for edible leaves); often prostrate, flattened; waysides, vacant lots, crevices of sidewalks, edge of asphalt strips, etc." (Stone, 1970; p. 269). "Occasional in croplands and waste places." (Whistler, 1988; p. 7).

In Hawai‘i, "the most common naturalized species of Amaranthus, occurring in low elevation, disturbed habitats" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 189).  In Fiji, "occurring near sea level as a naturalized weed of cultivation and waste places, often locally abundant, common along roadsides and in gardens, plantations and canefields" (Smith, 1981; p. 286).  On Niue, "a common weed around houses and in plantations" (Sykes, 1970; p. 41). In Tonga, "a weed of plantations and waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 107). In New Zealand, "crops, sand dunes" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 108).  In Papua New Guinea, "occurring as a weed in gardens and waste places, also in secondary vegetation,  at 0-2000 m altitude"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 30).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Origin obscure though possibly South America; widely naturalized tropical weed, adventive to warm-temperate regions" (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 37)
Foucher cited: Garber 1069 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 1374
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Yuncher 9197 (BISH), W. Harris 9 (BISH), W. Harris 262 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 96)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 2160 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1947 (US), Fosberg 31653 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 26474)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 26472)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1732 (US), Falanruw 1786 (US), Evans 2358 (US, BISH, Fo, NY), Falanruw 1745 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1985) (voucher ID: PTBG 26470)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Fé Group
Santa Fé Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5779 (BISH, CANB)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: M. Takamatsu 1018 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Evans 343 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46888a (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 286)
As A. gracilis. Voucher cited: Milne 111
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 286)
As A. gracilis. Vouchers cited: DA 8878, DA 5743
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 286)
As A. gracilis. Voucher cited: DA 8952
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 286)
As A. gracilis.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 96 (GH), Fosberg 11091 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39578)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Huku Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: R.L. Oliver & P.A. Schäfer 3100b (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41673)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39579)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood, S.P. Perlman, J.-Y. Meyer & L. Teatiu 6407 (PAP), S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 15862 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26262)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28578)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40872)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Bare 117
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Sachet 966 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: BRY 26491
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25456, BRY 25998
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 36)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10242 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: N. Hallé 7687 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9175 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 269)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 26473)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 8)
Uncommon near quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Shannon, Robynn K./Wagner, Warren L. (1996) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Snyder s.n. (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (pp. 1-2)
Voucher cited: Hughes s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 14)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 189)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Malden Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37227)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 21)
Uncommon.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 55, 78)
Lawns and waste places at the settlement. voucher cited: Bergman 101
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 8)
Rare. Voucher cited: Fosberg 55726 (US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Presence not verified
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 326)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24372 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39473 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 35)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 85-86)
Vouchers cited: Scully 143N (US?), Thaman & Manner 26 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Boulet in MacKee 31447
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: MacKee 28330
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Labillardière s.n., Pancher 437, Balansa 522, Buchholz 1781, MacKee 20043, MacKee 25248, MacKee 39764
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 41)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169884, CHR 169887
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9866 (BISH)
"A weedy plant occasional in plantations, dooryards, and waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 38)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1974) (voucher ID: BNM 10046)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 62)
Taxon name on voucher: Amaranthus viridis L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 168)
Common weed in plantations, on rubbish heaps and rough lawns.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 54)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (pp. 29-30)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 128-129)
At low and medium altitudes; a common weed, probably introduced.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 63-65)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10750 (PAP), J. Florence 10810 (PAP)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 46)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Soakai 294
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 107)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Soakai 397
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 107)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15470
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 440, Soakai 461, Soakai 609
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15164, Hürlimann 100
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 348)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 107)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 541
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Soakai 880
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 55)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Herbst & Takeuchi 9074 (BISH), Herbst & Takeuchi 9080 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-3)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34446
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 43517 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34446 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Fields, waste places".
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 78)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 20-21)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 108)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 55)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 16)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 150)
"Seen by Wiehe in 1939".
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 18)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 20-21)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Amaranthus viridis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Amaranthus viridis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Amaranthus viridis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 21 FEB 2013.