Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Alternanthera sessilis
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Amaranthaceae


Achyranthes sessilis (L.) Besser; Alternanthera glabra Moq.; Gomphrena sessilis L.

Chinese: lian zi cao

English: dwarf copperleaf, joyweed, rabbit-meat, sessile joyweed

French: brède emballages, serenti

Hawaiian: palewāwae

Hindi: geluti

Japanese: tsuru-nogeito, turu-nogeito

Maori (Cook Islands): mata kura

Marquesan: ti

Palauan: eluached, okula beluu lechad, sechal

Samoan: vao sosolo, vao sosolo

Tongan: fisi‘i‘ano

"Perennial herbs, stems prostrate, rarely ascending, often rooting at the nodes, 1-10 dm long, villous in lines and transversely at the nodes.  Leaves obovate to broadly elliptic, occasionally linear-lanceolate, 1-15 cm long, 0.3-3 cm wide, glabrous to sparsely villous, petioles 1-5 mm long.  Flowers in sessile spikes, bract and bracteoles shiny white, 0.7-1.5 mm long, glabrous; sepals equal, 2.5-3 mm long, outer ones 1-nerved or indistinctly 3-nerved toward base; stamens 5, 2 sterile.  Utricles 2-2.3 mm long, exceeding the sepals"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p 185).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Flora of North America online. "Often found in and near ponds, canals and reservoirs.  It prefers places with constant or periodically high humidity and so may be found in swamps, shallow ditches, and fallow rice fields.  The species may, however, tolerate extremely dry conditions on ditch banks, along roadsides, and in gardens, plantations, and cultivated crops.  It often grows in a mixed association of several other aquatic species"  (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 47-48).

In Papua New Guinea, "a plant of damp places; ditches, wet headlands, roadsides; sometimes a weed of plantations, particularly at altitudes of 1500 m or higher" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 53); "In open, moist or inundated habitats at 0-2000 m altitude; also occurring as a weed at roadsides and in plantations and gardens"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 20).  In Tonga, "occasional as a waste area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 109). In New Zealand, "usually in wet or damp places, sometimes in waste places in and around towns and cities on comparatively dry ground, occasionally a garden weed" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 101). Seed, rooting at nodes. Perhaps southern Asia (Smith,1981; pp. 291-292). Widely distributed as a weed.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 1010
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Garber 1010 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Harris 8, Harris 236, Harris 321, Yuncker 9172, Yuncker 9275, Whistler 1366
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9172 (BISH), Yuncker 9275 (BISH), W. Harris 321 (BISH), W. Harris 8 (BISH), W. Harrris 236 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 6)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 96)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43859)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 7)
"A likely introduced weed; included here because of the record by R.M.Laing, Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 47: 25 (1915), but no material from the Island has been seen and it is now probably extinct".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 28)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Marshall 95 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 134 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7877 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21072)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 57)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2578 (US), Glassman 2724 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 66)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58559 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2578 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2724 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 645 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1228 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 291-292)
Voucher cited: Smith 7997
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 291-292)
Voucher cited: DA 11521
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 291-292)
Vouchers cited: Smith 6662, Greenwood 95A, DA 8951
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 291-292)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 95, Gibbs 688, Degener 15216, Smith 9504, Smith 9067, DA 11007, DA 11582, DA 9585, Gillespie 3543a, Smith 7085, Greenwood 1141
French Polynesia
Clipperton Island
Clipperton (Arue, Avera) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence , L. Dunn , S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9042 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39337)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39961)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6263 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8893)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4150 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1964) (voucher ID: PTBG 8941)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. Dunn 332 (PAP)
Cultivated.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: BRY 26492
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Florence 2634
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2753 (PAP)
Adventice. Mauvaise herbe des jardins et des cultures.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 37020)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 54-56)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10204 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1978) (voucher ID: PTBG 26630)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 185)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: L. Hume 362 (BISH, PTBG), D. Lorence & T. Flynn 5206 (BISH, PTBG), W.L. Wagner 5623 (BISH, US), L. Hume 7 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde (2007) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Lāna‘i Conservation Internship Program s.n. (BISH 717390)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 185)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 185)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 185)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 5)
"Common; ruderal areas, particularly in town".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Abundant; weed of gardens and ruderal areas, some entering forests".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 60)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Hassall 188 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 1064, Balansa 1025, MacKee 18113
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 4)
Vouchers: Lorence 9821 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US), Lorence 9822A (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 114)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 68)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 574)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1976) (voucher ID: BNM 10041)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10132)
Taxon name on voucher: Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 32)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 53)
Common from near sea level to over 2000 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 20)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 132)
In the settled areas at low and medium altitudes; a common weed in open usually wet places.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 6)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 45)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Soakai? 389, Soakai? 981 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Vouchers cited: Ilolahi 126, Soakai
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 108-109)
Voyucher cited: Hürlimann 299
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 108-109)
Voyucher cited: Yuncker 16043
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 150 (CHR)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 6)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, gardens, swamps. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 77-78)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
Also as Alternanthera nodiflora R. Br.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 101)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 45)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 12)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 103)
Possibly naturalized.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 45, 49)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 110)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7271 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 145)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2095 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Procter 4148, Roberson 2467, Robertson 2715
"Sometimes sold as an aquarium plant, particularly the forms with bright reddish leaves"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 101).


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