Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Aleurites moluccana
(L.) Willd., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd.; Aleurites remyi Sherff; Aleurites trilobus J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.; Jatropha moluccana L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: tiairi, tiairi

Carolinian: raguar

Chamorro: lumbang, raguar

Chinese: shi li

English: candleberry, candlenut, Indian walnut, lumbangtree, varnishtree

Fijian: lauci, lauthe, lauthi, nggerenggere, qereqere, sekethi, sikeci, sikeli, sikethi, toto, tuitui, waiwai

French: bancoulier, noyer de bancoul, noyer des Moluques

Hawaiian: kuikui, kukui

Mangarevan: rama

Maori (Cook Islands): tuitui

Marquesan: ‘ama, ama

Niuean: tuitui

Other: doodoe, doodway, dudui, tiaieri

Palauan: sakan

Pohnpeian: sakan, shakan

Rapan: tiairi

Samoan: lama, lama

Spanish: árbol de tocte, calumbán, camirio, cocochile, lumbán

Tahitian: ahama, ‘ama, tahii tairi, tahiri, ti‘a‘iri, tiairi, tuitui, tutui, tutu‘i, tutu‘i

Tongan: tuitui

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 10 m tall or more, bark gray-brown to blackish; leaves and inflorescence with a mealy-scurfy whitish to light brown indument; leaves simple and ovate or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed, or sublanceolate, or subdeltoid, acute at apex, rounded, truncate, or subcordate at base, 3-5-nerved from the base, midrib thereafter pinnately branches; blades mostly 10-20 cm long, on an equally long slender petiole; 2 glands at junction of blade and petiole; flowers small, greenish-white, in panicles, male and female on same plant; panicles 10-15 cm long, many-flowered, terminal; petals pubescent, elliptic-spathulate; stamens of unequal lengths; ovary pubescent; fruit globose or bi-globose, 1-2-seeded, olivaceous, glabrescent, 4-6 cm long, indehiscent, with bony endocarp and oily seeds" (Stone, 1970; p. 368).

Habitat/ecology:  Favors moist valleys.  Grows to elevations of 2000 m on a variety of soils.  In Hawai‘i, "a Polynesian introduction, now a conspicuous component of mesic valley vegetation, 0-700 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 598).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to an elevation of 825 m in forest or along its edges, in thickets, and sometimes along the shore"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 548-549). In New Caledonia, "l'arbre est localement abondant sur schistes en forêts peu ou pas dégradées, et dans les forêts côtières sur calcaires des îles Loyauté" (MacKee, 1994; p. 50).

Propagation:  Large, heavy seeds. An early introduction, undoubtedly it was widely spread by humans. Nevertheless, as can be observed in Hawai‘i, this species has spread further following introduction by whatever means, now growing even in seemingly totally inaccessable spots.

Native range:  "Native to Malesia, although its precise native range is essentially impossible to determine because of its early spread by man, now widespread in many tropical areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 598).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9540 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 137839)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 46)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430640)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Garber 777 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 137842)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418175)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 77)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 649554)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 82006)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 84)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 137790)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 90)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 96)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 63)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 137789)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 132)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2867 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island possibly introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 84)
Vouchers cited: S.F. Glassman 2867 (BISH), P. Raynor 111 (NY, PTBG), S.H. Riesenberg 77 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 984 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 137863)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 137866)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 137867)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 137868)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 444836)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 132)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 659885)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 659886)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 649553)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Voucher cited: Smith 23
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 137852)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1059, Smith 7945
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 137855)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 950
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137856)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137857)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Voucher cited: Smith 7406
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137853)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137854)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Voucher cited: Weiner 71-7-33a
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448533)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Vouchers cited: DA 12201 (DF 51), Bierhorst F166
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1046
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 548-549)
Vouchers cited: Smith 4308, Degener 14957, Gillespie 4249, DA L.13483 (DF 1195), Berry 114, DF 385 (Damanu 72), Smith 8855, Gillespie 2831, St. John 18249, DA 2503, DA 12090
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 33122)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 36316)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 137843)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 137844)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137846)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 137847)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 137849)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 137850)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 137851)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 649552)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: St. John 14684 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405407)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: St. John 14620 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405408)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 103 (GH), Quayle & Curtis 432 (BISH), St. John 14456 (BISH), St. John 14558 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137792)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137793)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137794)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137795)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405449)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405458)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1838) (voucher ID: BISH 634785)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1050 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1054 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137796)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7328 (PAP), J. Florence 7380 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137798)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-C. Thibault 1089 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 137797)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137799)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 137810)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 585111)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39861)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 137811)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 597997)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4286 (PAP), J. Florence 6930 (PAP), J. Florence 4286 (PAP), J. Florence 7532 (PAP), J. Florence 7537 (PAP), B. Toutain 4246 (PAP)
nat
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 137801)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 137802)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137803)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137804)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 544939)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555100)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 597996)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39359)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39586)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137805)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137806)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman & K.R. Wood 15929 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 584909)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12097 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 665110)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 604031)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Gillette 9 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10266 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 137822)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 422471)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 662495)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2097 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 137827)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491166)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599184)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 614464)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 634713)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 659887)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 1002656)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1973) (voucher ID: PTBG 22201)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: BRY 25419
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3390 (PAP), J. Florence 3397 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492095)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: BRY 26531
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5253 (PAP), J. Florence 10508 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492246)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 662497)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 101)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4609 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1912) (voucher ID: BISH 137823)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1910) (voucher ID: BISH 137824)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 137825)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 137826)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1910) (voucher ID: BISH 137828)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 558145)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 614463)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5644 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11314 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405352)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405367)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553342)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 662496)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6452 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137817)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137818)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 137819)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137820)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405442)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493200)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 634707)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137785)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405362)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5578 (PAP), J. Florence 5979 (PAP)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 137784)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137786)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137787)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137788)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 137821)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405419)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 545616)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553140)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558110)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405347)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405348)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405349)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 368)
Uncommon. Voucher cited: Stone 3921 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 132)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 137861)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 137862)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 137864)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1912) (voucher ID: BISH 437865)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660131)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660510)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 598)
Naturalized
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 132)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll uncertain if native
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 100)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2359 (Z)
Spontané
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2574 (Z)
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Localement abondante, peut-être indigène.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
May be indigenous. Vouchers cited: Balansa 3442a, Däniker 694 (Z), MacKee 3586, Rolly in MacKee 32051
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 137858)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Sam in MacKee 43250
Spontané en forêt
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 104-105)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 624)
"Known from 4 localities on Raoul only. Plantation and forest".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
abo. intro.
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 85)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169704, CHR 169705
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Whistler 10876
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9702 (BISH)
"Occasional throughout the island".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 137833)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 312-313)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 45146)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 448)
At low and medium altitudes, in second-growth forests, thickets, etc.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island introduced
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 31)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 137816)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 38)
Vouchers cited: Ross 3, St. John 14980, J. P. Chapin 950
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 137813)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 137814)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405453)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 137840)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417663)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439209)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 609303)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island probably introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 137841)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 649555)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 45)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15754, Hotta 4850, Whistler 6593
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 639344)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 164-165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15754
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137834)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Scarth-Johnson 18, Buelow 578
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 164-165)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Lister, Hurlimann 157, Yuncker 15460, Hotta 5172, Sykes 323, Whistler 7449, Martin 5
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 164-165)
Vouchers cited: Hürlimann 157, Yuncker 15460
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137835)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 137838)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 600934)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 50)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Moseley n.s., Forster n.s., Setchell & Parks 15314,Yuncker 15058, Hotta 4522, Soakai 908, Scarth-Johnson 18, Whistler 6769
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 164-165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15058
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137836)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3293)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 349)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Voucher sited: Sykes
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Buelow 2174
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Kirch 268
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 459225)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: (Whistler)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n., Crosby s.n., Yuncker 16135, Hotta 4938
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 164-165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16135
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 53)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 137837)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 56)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 36578)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 36715)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418332)
Taxon name on voucher: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 33)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 176)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 12)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 17, 102)
Formerly widely planted.
Naturalized
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 23)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  Listed as a moderate invader on Pitcairn Island (Meyer, 2000; p. 103). Widespread in the Hawaiian Islands.

Control:  Where control is needed, trees can be cut down and stumps treated with glyphosate to prevent resprouting. "Even quite large trees can apparently be killed by basal bark application of 10% Garlon 600 in diesel oil. Pending the results of field trials seedlings should be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pule in clean water, and saplings and trees either cut stump treated or sem injected with 50% Roundup in clean water or basal bark treated with 10% Garlon 600 in diesel oil. Large trees may be controlled either by cut stump treatment with 50% Roundup or possibly by stem injection with 100% Roundup." (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 17).

Additional information:
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database.

Additional online information about Aleurites moluccana is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Aleurites moluccana as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Aleurites moluccana may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 137814 (Whitney Expedition s.n.).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 137816 (Whitney Expedition s.n.).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 137864 (GuamExp.Station 331).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1838. Voucher specimen #BISH 634785 (M.Hombron 1841).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1910. Voucher specimen #BISH 137824 (Tilden 333).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1910. Voucher specimen #BISH 137828 (Tilden 333).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1912. Voucher specimen #BISH 137823 (Tilden 1032).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1912. Voucher specimen #BISH 437865 (Thompson, J.B. 86).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137785 (A.M.Stokes 32).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137786 (A.M.Stokes 87).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137787 (A.M.Stokes 126).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137788 (A.M.Stokes 174).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137804 (F.B.H.Brown 427).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137818 (A.M.Stokes 19).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137820 (A.M.Stokes 19).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 137821 (A.M.Stokes 118).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 649555 (A.J.Eames 48).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137792 (E.H.Quayle 432).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137793 (E.H.Quayle 418).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137794 (E.H.Quayle 418).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137795 (E.H.Quayle 427).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137796 (R.H.Beck 1525).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137798 (F.B.H.Brown 909).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137799 (E.H.Quayle 1653).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137803 (E.H.Quayle 1252).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137805 (E.H.Quayle 1696).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137806 (E.H.Quayle 1816).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137817 (Whitney Expedition 319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 137819 (Whitney Expedition 319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1926. Voucher specimen #BISH 137838 (H.E.Parks 16077).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 137825 (L.H.MacDaniels 1633).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 137847 (J.W.Gillespie 2831).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 137850 (J.W.Gillespie 3609).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 137851 (J.W.Gillespie 3609).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 649552 (J.W.Gillespie 4249).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 137790 (J.Graham 3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 137826 (A.M.Adamson 10).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 137789 (G.P.Wilder 904).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 137797 (E.P.Mumford 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 137811 (E.P.Mumford 535).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 137841 (E.Christophersen 333).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 137842 (D.W.Garber 777).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 137810 (PacificEnt.Survey Ex 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 137840 (E.Christophersen 2438).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 137852 (A.C.Smith 23).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 137784 (J.P.Chapin 845).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 137801 (J.P.Chapin 732).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 137813 (J.P.Chapin 950).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 137822 (St.John, H. 14214).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 137855 (A.C.Smith 1059).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405347 (St.John, H. 16211).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405348 (St.John, H. 16211).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405349 (St.John, H. 16211).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405352 (St.John, H. 16110).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405362 (St.John, H. 16846).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405367 (St.John, H. 15863).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405407 (St.John, H. 14684).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405408 (St.John, H. 14620).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405419 (St.John, H. 16546).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405442 (St.John, H. 15794).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405449 (St.John, H. 14456).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405453 (St.John, H. 14980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 405458 (Fosberg, F.R. 11360).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 444836 (M.Takamatsu 984).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 137849 (St.John, H. 18249).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 649553 (J.M.Valentine 1).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 137839 (T.G.Yuncker 9540).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 649554 (T.G.Yuncker 9396).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 137833 (T.G.Yuncker 9702).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 137844 (Degener, O. 14957).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 137843 (Smith, A.C. 4308).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 137858 (Buchholz, J.T. 1397).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 137867 (S.H.Riesenberg 77).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 137868 (S.H.Riesenberg 77).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 137866 (S.F.Glassman 2867).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137834 (T.G.Yuncker 15754).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137835 (T.G.Yuncker 15460).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137836 (T.G.Yuncker 15058).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137837 (T.G.Yuncker 16135).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137846 (Smith, A.C. 8855).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137853 (Smith, A.C. 7406).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137854 (Smith, A.C. 7406).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137856 (Smith, A.C. 7945).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 137857 (Smith, A.C. 7945).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 137861 (Fosberg, F.R. 35534).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 137862 (Fosberg, F.R. 35534).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 137863 (Fosberg, F.R. 35533).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 137802 (B.G.Decker 284).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1963. Voucher specimen #BISH 585111 (B.G.Decker 955).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1964. Voucher specimen #BISH 584909 (B.G.Decker 2279).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 660131 (Evans, M. 1488).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 660510 (Evans, M. 1763).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 33122 (P.Ranamu FD 1195).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 137827 (H.M.Smith 98).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 36715 (MacKee, M. 19).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 36316 (M.A.Weiner MW-69-F20A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 36578 (D.E.Yen 424).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 82006 (D.R.Stoddart 2239).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 448533 (M.A.Weiner MW-71-7-33a).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417663 (Whistler, W.A. W 928).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 634713 (J.Raynal 17810).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 418175 (Whistler, W.A. W 1293).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 418332 (Kirch, P.V. 37).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 597997 (B.G.Decker 2795).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430640 (J.Kuruc J 91).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 597996 (J.C.Thibault 120).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 459225 (P.V.Kirch 268).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 422471 (Gagné, B.H. 1612).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 439209 (P.A.Cox 239).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 659885 (Fosberg, F.R. 60025).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 659886 (Fosberg, F.R. 60025).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 491166 (J.Florence 2097).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 599184 (Fosberg, F.R. 60980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 604031 (Fosberg, F.R. 61154).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 1002656 (Fosberg, F.R. 60980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492095 (J.Florence 3390).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 555100 (J.Florence 4286).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 558110 (R.Graffe 3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 614463 (Fosberg, F.R. 62901).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 614464 (Fosberg, F.R. 63684).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 639344 (G.Buelow 2918).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 659887 (Fosberg, F.R. 63684).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492246 (J.Florence 5253).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 545616 (J.Florence 5979).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553140 (J.Florence 5578).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553342 (J.Florence 5644).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 493200 (J.Florence 6452).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 634707 (N.Hallé 7435).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 544939 (J.Florence 7532).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 609303 (P.A.Cox 924).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 558145 (P.Birnbaum 102).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 600934 (A.Whistler 7449).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 662495 (Florence 10266).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 662497 (Florence 10508).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 662496 (Florence 11314).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 665110 (Florence 12097).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 1997. Flore de la Polynésie française, Vol. 1. Paris. Editions de l'Orstom, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 34. 393 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Stoddart, D. R. 1983. Henderson Island (Southeast Polynesia): Summary of current knowledge. Atoll Res. Bull. 272. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 47 pp. + photos.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Parham, B. E. V. 1942. Fijian plant names. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. 83 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia 2(6):323-353.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, Barbara. 0. Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

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Whistler, W. A. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1984. Rainforest trees of Samoa: A guide to the common native and naturalized lowland and foothill forest trees of the Samoan Archielago. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 210 pp. ISBN 0-645426-4-1.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

World Health Organization. 1998. Medical plants in the South Pacific. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila. 254 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 FEB 2013.