Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ailanthus altissima
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Simaroubaceae


Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)) Ailanthus cacodendron (Ehrh.) Schinz & Thell.; Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.; Toxicodendron altissimum Mill.

Chinese: chou chun

English: China sumac, Chinese tree of heaven, stinktree, tree of heaven, varnishtree

French: vernis de la Chine, verno

"Deciduous tree 8-10 (-25) m high with ± rounded crown; branchlets robust, reddish-brown, ascending; leaf rachis held erect but leaflets tend to droop; suckers profusely.  Leaves:  Dark green with yellowish autumn tints, 300-600 (-1000) mm long; leaflets with 1-4 large, basal, gland-bearing teeth; bad-smelling when bruised.  Flowers: ± Greenish-yellow, ± 3 mm long, unisexual and bisexual, male flowers bad-smelling, in large terminal sprays.  Fruits:  Samaras ± long, green turning reddish-orange, twisted, in large bunches up to 300 mm across"  (Henderson, 1995; p. 60).

Description from the Flora of China online. Wide variety of climatic zones from temperate to tropical.  "Produces abundant root sprouts that can develop into extensive thickets and displace native vegetation.  In urban areas it is a maintenance problem for landscapers"  (Randall et al., 1966; p. 27).  "Spreads rapidly on undisturbed grazing land, roadsides and waste places, on both clay and sandy soils"  (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; p. 135).  "Grassland, forest gaps, riparian habitats, flood plains, rock outcrops, disturbed places.  A fast growing and light-demanding pioneer tree forming extensive thickets due to root suckering, thereby displacing native vegetation.  It tolerates drought and airborne salt, and grows well on poor soils.  Older trees are resistant to freezing temperatures"  (Weber, 2003; p. 32). Seeds and suckers. Seeds dispersed by wind, water and birds. East Asia (China); widely cultivated (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 472, 518, 550)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1430)1195. "Esta árbol que posee una potente reproducción vegetativa representa una verdadera amenaza en los lugares donde ha sido introducido. Es preocupante el desarrollo vigorosa que alcanzó detrás del pueblito de La Colonia en AS".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 47)
Eradication of this infestation continuing. Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2010062501 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 32)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 1)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 12)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Found in many habitats; 100-2500 m. All regions of China except Hainan, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai".
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 31)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1215)
"Mainly on roadsides and in waste places in the vicinity of gardens and plantations".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 31)
Additional information on control methods from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  Hand pull seedlings and small plants (all year round): remove all roots and fragments, as these can regrow, and dispose of at a refuse transfer station.

Chemical: Cut stumps must be treated with a herbicide (such as Picloram ortriclopyr) to prevent resprouting. Hexazinone can be applied by spot gun. Regrowth can be treated with a foliar spray.

"1. Basal bark application (late winter or early spring-summer): spray or paint 30cm wide band around trunk using triclopyr 600EC (50ml/L). 2. Swab stump (spring-summer): cut down and paint freshly cut stump with triclopyr 600EC (50ml/L). 3. Spray (spring-summer): glyphosate (100ml/10L + penetrant) or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L) or triclopyr 600EC (60ml/10L + penetrant)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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