Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ageratum houstonianum
Mill., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Ageratum mexicanum Sims

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiong er cao

English: ageratum, blue billygoat weed, bluemink, flossflower, goatweed, Mexican ageratum

Fijian: botebotekoro, mbotembotekoro, sogovanua, songovanua

French: ageratum du Mexique

Hawaiian: maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula

Spanish: agérato

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual, usually erect and often much branched, the stems leafy throughout, pilose or villous with spreading hairs; leaves opposite, on rather long, slender petioles, very thin, broadly deltoid-ovate, mostly 4-8 cm long, obtuse or acute, generally shallowing cordate at the base, coarsely crenate, thinly villous-hirsute, not punctate beneath; corymbs terminal on the branches, often compound, glandular-hirtellous and villous with several-celled hairs; heads numerous lavender or pale blue, 8 mm broad, about 75-flowered; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate or linear, entire, herbaceous, long-attenuate, ciliolate, usually purplish toward the apex, 2-costate, glandular-puberulent; achenes black, lustrous, commonly hispidulous, at least on the angles, 1.2 mm long; pappus scales 5, lanceolate, fimbriate-margined, long-setiferous, about equaling the corolla" (Nash & Williams, 1976; p. 39).

"Coarse herb, semiprostrate toward base and with ascending branches 0.3-1 m high...  The corolla lobes and styles are pale blue to purple."  (Smith, 1991; pp. 296-297).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in a wide variety of disturbed habitats, especially along trails and roadsides, 40-1,300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 256). In Fiji, "sometimes cultivated and also naturalized at elevations from near sea level to 1,127 m in open places, along roadsides, on river banks, and on cleared upland slopes and crests"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 296-297). In New Guinea, "established in a few localities above 1000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p 63).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico, central America and the West Indies (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 256); cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 296-297)
Vouchers cited: Parks 20625, Parks 20626, Smith 5019, DA 2729, DA 8530, DA 11114, DA 10371, Vaughan 3246, DA 11327, DA 11123, DA 12117
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63009
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64999
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3287 (PAP), J. Florence 6626 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 2)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimr H69910 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 256)
Voucher cited: Garber 95 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 31210, Fallen 176 (NOU), Fukuoka et al. C-90, H. Brinon 267 (NOU), Toutain 3570 (NOU)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 85)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 206)
"Common on Raoul and nearby islets. Waste places and disturbed areas".
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 63)
Established in a few localities above 1000 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 1)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Nanhai Zhudao, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
"Grasslands, roadsides, slopes in valleys; 100-1500 m. Cultivated and naturalized".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 273)
On farmland or in wasteland.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 10)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiapas, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Veracruz
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 206)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"A common weed from low to middle elevations throughout Taiwan".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Additional information:
Additional online information about Ageratum houstonianum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Ageratum houstonianum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Ageratum houstonianum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Ching-I Peng, ed. 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan (online resource).

Dassanayake, M. D., gen. ed. 1994. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Vol VIII. Amerind Pub. Co., New Delhi. 458 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Nash, Dorothy L./Williams, Louis O. 1976. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Botany. Vol. 24, Part XII. Chicago Natural History Museum. 603 pp.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. 2000. New plant records from Maui, O‘ahu, and the Hawai‘i Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 64:1-10.

Parham, J. W. 1958. The weeds of Fiji. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 35. 196 pp.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 24 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.