Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ageratum conyzoides
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: kulong-kogong-babae

Bontoc: budbuda, kakalding

Chamorro: mumutung

Chinese: huo xiang ji

Chuukese: amshiip, olloowaisiip, ololopon, omusiip, opolopon, oponupon

English: ageratum, billygoat-plant, billygoat-weed, blue top, bluebonnet, goatweed, Mother Brinkly, tropic ageratum, tropical whiteweed, whiteweed, winter weed

Fijian: botebotekoro, mata mothemothe, mbotembotekoro, sogovanua, songovanua

Filipino: bahu-bahu, bahug-bahug

French: ageratum fausse conyze, azier françois, baume, baume blanc, baume mauve, bouton, herbe de bouc

Hawaiian: maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula

Ibatan: kamabuag

Kwara‘ae: belohanua

Mangarevan: miri

Nauruan: bwiyat tsige, bwiyat ziege

Niuean: sekose sea, tekote tea

Other: uárong nga lípesedj

Palauan: agmak, agmakk, ngmak

Pangasinan: asipukpuk

Pingelapan: pokaniko

Pohnpeian: pusen-koh, pwisehnkou

Samoan: lau tae‘oti, lau tae‘oti, tae‘oti

Spanish: chuva, huarmi

Tagalog: bulak-manok, kolokong-kabayo

Tahitian: maire vaihi

Tongan: te‘ehosi

Yapese: lamër ne pan ni pin

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs. Stems erect, 30-60 cm tall, hispid, branched, somewhat aromatic. Leaves petiolate, ovate, 5-13 cm long (including petiole 0.3-5 cm, apex acute, base truncate to rounded, rarely cordate, margins crenate. Heads to 6 mm across, in dense small terminal corymbs of 8-15 heads. Involucres campanulate, bracts 2-3 seriate, linear, subequal, acute, sparsely pilose outside. Flowers many (60-75), pale blue or white; corollas tubular, 1-1.5 mm long, limb 5-cleft. Achenes linear-oblong, black, 5-angled; pappus of 5 short scales, scales often serrate basally, ending in a long awn"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Erect herb; young stems pubescent; leaves ovate or rhombic-ovate, acute at apex, acute to obtuse or subcordately rounded at base, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular dorsally, 2-10 cm long, 1-56 cm wide, on petiole 1-5 cm long; heads corymbose 4-6 mm long; involucre subglabrous, bracts acute-acuminate, 3 mm long; florets about 75 per head; corolla about 1 mm long, white or blue-purplish, included in the involucre; style-branches exserted, achenes 1.5-2 mm long, nearly glabrous"  (Stone, 1970; p. 580).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Billygoat weed is a prolific ephemeral herb...  It occurs as a major to intermediate weed of frequently-disturbed areas, such as vegetables and other cultivated crops, pastures (especially when overgrazed), plantations, orchards and roadsides throughout the region.  It thrives best in rich, moist, mineral soils with high air humidities, and tolerates shade.  The drier and less fertile conditions of atoll agriculture do not suit the plant so well; it is only a minor weed in Niue and appears to be absent from other atolls"  (Swarbrick, 1997).  "Common as a weed in sunny, disturbed places and croplands"  (Whistler, 1988; p. 9).  "A weed in many crops in the tropics and subtropics.  Displaces forages in humid pastures and understory plants in disturbed forests.  Seeds reportedly stick in the throats of livestock and can choke and kill them"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Hawai‘i, "a widespread and often common weed, from sea level to at least 1,300 m  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 255).  In Fiji, occasionally cultivated but most often seen in Fiji as an abundantly naturalized weed at elevations from near sea level to about 950 m in clearings, cultivated areas, grassland, and forest, often along trails and roads" (Smith, 1991; p. 296).  Not common in Niue (Sykes, 1970). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 271). In Guam, "a weed of waste ground" (Stone, 1970; p. 580). In New Guinea, "a common weed of roadsides, cultivation, waste land, plantations and pasture. From sea level to about 2000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 63). In Tonga, "a frequent plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 266).

Propagation:  Seed.  "It may produce 40,000 seeds per plant and in some areas one-half of the seeds will germinate shortly after they are shed.  Seeds are mainly spread by wind and water and will germinate under a wide range of conditions"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 148).

Native range:  Central and South America (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 255), now a world-wide weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 1021
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 67)
Voucher cited: Garber 1021 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 47)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37089)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Harris 194, Harris 330, Harris 379, Yuncker 9124, Whistler 1364Vouchers cited:
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 67)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9124 (BISH), W. Harris 330 (BISH), W. Harris 379 (BISH), W. Harris 194 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"An occasional weed, originally escaped from cultivation". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 3352 (NSW), J. Pickard 2843 (NSW), G. Uhe 1327 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 7)
"An occasional weed, originally escaped from cultivation". Vouchers cited: G.R. Quintal (BRI), G. Uhe 1108 (K), I. Robinson (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 28)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2322 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31688 (US, BISH), Falanruw 1946 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1638 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58844
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1849 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31413 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1784 (US), Valanruw 1722 (US), Evans 2414 (US), Evans 2356 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 133 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7858 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21077)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2408 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 71-72)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 65 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 93 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4088 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4226 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 73 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58312 (BISH), R. Gallen 67 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2408 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2460 (BISH), R. Lengsi 18 (NY), D.H. Lorence 8099 (NY, PTBG, US), F. Sohl 38 (NY, PTBG), L. Stemmermann 3013 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 34539)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzioides L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38942)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzioides L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28678)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 38730)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 43686)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43711)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43713)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43885)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Not seen by Fosberg & Evans, 1969 (p. 14)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 889
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Moseley s. n.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Bryan 316e
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Smith 7991
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Milne 244
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Weiner 71-7-14A
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Milne 75
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Vouchers cited: DA 8784, Smith 1828, DA 10762
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: DA 10210
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 19A, Smith 4258, Parks 20625, DA 10169, dA 14616, DA 10541, Parks 20170, DA 9549, DA 10055, DA 11081, DA 9935, DA 10605, H.B.R. Parham 309
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 296)
Voucher cited: Milne 39
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: St. John 14605 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 126 (GH), St. John 14576 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1064 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1087 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9341 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7364 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Huku Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1105 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1124 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9396 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8300)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: M.-H. Sachet 1295 (PAP), R.L. Oliver & P.A. Schäfer 3175 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41671)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4104 (PAP), J. Florence 4179 (PAP), J. Florence 8449 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41421)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 15851 (PAP), B.G. Decker 417 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12105 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: D. Bare 66
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11690 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2098 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Sachet 946 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Sachet 63385, Moore 219, BRY 26466a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: BRY 26393
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5335 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25471, BRY 25768, BRY 26050, BRY 26340
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3846 (PAP), J. Florence 8748 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 14 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4043 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5709 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6275 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5520 (PAP), J. Florence 6165 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 580)
Voucher cited: Stone 3878 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Flynn et al. 4860 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 255-256)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 289)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39485 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58652 (US), Thaman & Manner 11 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9574 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Deplanche 218
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45924
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Védel s.n., Vieillard 789, MacKee 23402, MacKee 23931, MacKee 23932, MacKee 31210, Hoff 976, MacKee 45064
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Germain s.n.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 62)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170420, CHR 170427, CHR 170422
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 26)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 116)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9882 (BISH), Yuncker 10072 (BISH)
"Occasional along roadsides".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 38)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 251)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 250)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 41562)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 1142)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 252)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 1143)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1976) (voucher ID: BNM 10040)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 282)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchus Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 557)
Common weed.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 37)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 63)
From sea level to about 2000 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 597)
A common weed in open waste places from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 44)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 266)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 266)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15424, Yuncker 15642
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 266)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15239
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 348)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 43)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 31)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 150-153)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Nanhai Zhudao, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan; only cultivated in Hebei and Zhejiang.
"Valleys, forests, forest margins on slopes, riversides, grasslands, field margins. Cultivated and naturalized".
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (pp. 172, 178)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 273)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 150-153)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 10)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 10)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 11)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (pp. 172, 178)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"A common weed in waste areas and fields from low to middle elevations throughout Taiwan".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 102)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 159)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 862 (K, US), Rhyne 747 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37882)
Taxon name on voucher: Ageratum conyzoides L.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 35)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 150-153)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 114)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Todd 53
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical: "Germination is prevented by mulches if they are thick enough and left undisturbed.  Susceptible to hand weeding, chipping and cultivation under dry conditions, but stems may root if left in contact with moist soil.  Unpalatable to stock.  Can be controlled by competition from leafy crops, such as cassava and sweet potato, but it is fairly shade-tolerant.  Dislikes dry air and soil conditions"  (Swarbrick, 1997).  "Goats with control ageratum (An Peischel)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical:  "Susceptible to: 1) residual herbicides, including diuron, atrazine, acifluorfen, ametryne, bromacil and karbutilate at standard rates; 2) translocated herbicides, including 2,4-D, glyphosate and fluroxypyr at standard rates; 3) contact herbicides, including diquat and paraquat at standard rates.  Probably susceptible to most herbicides suitable for controlling broad-leaved plants" (Swarbrick, 1997).  "Sensitive to 2,4-D and probably to all hormone-type dicot killers"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological:  Waterhouse (1994, pp. 13-16) lists the natural enemies of the species.

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).

Additional online information about Ageratum conyzoides is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Ageratum conyzoides as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Ageratum conyzoides may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM1142(Blackburn, B.S. 1).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM251(Hardy, S. 85).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1969. Voucher specimen #BNM252(Salsedo 343).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1969. Voucher specimen #BNM1143(Salsedo, C.A. 147).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM250(Fisher, T.R. 35).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1976. Voucher specimen #BNM10040(Otobed, D.O. P-10040).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Ching-I Peng, ed. 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan (online resource).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

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