Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Achillea millefolium
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Achillea borealis Bong.; Achillea lanulosa Nutt.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shi

English: bloodwort, carpenter's weed, common yarrow, milfoil, western yarrow, yarrow

French: achillée mille-feuille, herbe à dinde, mille-feuille

Korean: seoyangtobpul

Spanish: hierba de las cortaduras, milefólio, milenrama, plumajillo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Rhizomatous perennial herbs 2-5 (-10) dm tall.  Leaves lanceolate to linear, blades 3-15 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm wide, only the lowermost petiolate.  Involucre 3.5-5 mm high, 2-4 mm in diameter; ray florets usually 3-5 per head, rays white to pink, 2-3 mm long; disk florets 10-20 per head"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 252).

"Perennials, 6-65+ cm (usually rhizomatous, sometimes stoloniferous). Stems 1(-4), erect, simple or branched, densely lanate-tomentose to glabrate. Leaves petiolate (proximally) or sessile (distally, weakly clasping and gradually reduced); blades oblong or lanceolate, 3.5-35+ cm x 5-35 mm, 1-2-pinnately lobed (ultimate lobes ± lanceolate, often arrayed in multiple planes), faces glabrate to sparsely tomentose or densely lanate. Heads 10-100+, in simple or compound, corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries 20-30 in ± 3 series, (light green, midribs dark green to yellowish, margins green to light or dark brown) ovate to lanceolate, abaxial faces tomentose. Receptacles convex; paleae lanceolate, 1.5-4 mm. Ray florets (3-) 5-8, pistillate, fertile; corollas white or light pink to deep purple, laminae 1.5-3 x 1.5-3 mm. Disc florets 10-20; corollas white to grayish white, 2-4.5 mm. Cypselae 1-2 mm (margins broadly winged)"  (Flora of North America online).

Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Pastures, meadows, roadsides, stream sides, woodlands, waste grounds, dry or sandy soils, also in damp, clayey, and salty soils; 0-3600 m"  (Flora of North America online).  In Hawai‘i, "Naturalized from 1,200 to 3,000 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 252).  In New Zealand, "mostly roadsides and waste places, also palustral and coastal sites, pasture, cultivated land, and lawns"  (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 156).

Propagation:  Seed, stolons.

Native range:  Circumboreal temperate regions (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 252).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 252)
Voucher cited: Rock 10322 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 588577)
Taxon name on voucher: Achillea millefolium L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 73154)
Taxon name on voucher: Achillea millefolium L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 16064, MacKee 41091
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 156)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated, locally naturalized.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 156)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 8 DEC 2009 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.