Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acer negundo
L., Aceraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: fu ye feng

English: ash-leaf maple, box-elder, three-leaf maple

French: négondo

Japanese: tonerikoba-no-kaede

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 20 m tall, dioecious. Bark yellowish brown or gray-brown. Branchlets glabrous, those of present year green, older ones yellowish brown; winter buds small, scales 2 (or 3) pairs. Leaves deciduous; leaf blade 10-25 cm, papery, pinnate; petiolules 5-7 cm, pubescent, glabrescent; leaflets 3-7 (-9) per petiole; leaflet blades ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, 8-10 x 2-4 cm, base rounded or truncate, margin entire or with 3-5 teeth, apex acute. Pistillate inflorescence pendulous, racemose or compound racemose, axillary from leafless buds, 15-50-flowered. Staminate inflorescence usually a cluster of 4 flowers. Flowers 4-merous. Petals and disk absent. Stamens purplish, 4-6. Ovary glabrous. Samaras brownish yellow; nutlets convex, glabrous; wing including nutlet 3-3.5 cm x 8-10 mm, wings spreading acutely or nearly erectly"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Riparian habitats and forests, woodland.  Where native, this fast growing tree is commonly found in riparian forests and floodplains, and at least seven varieties have been recognized.  It is a shade tolerant tree that easily resprouts after damage and forms root suckers.  The tree is a successful and persistent invader once established, displaces native shrubs and trees and prevents their regeneration.  The tree tolerates flooding and also drought to some extent"  (Weber, 2003; p. 21). 

In New South Wales, Australia, "Acer negundo tolerates frost, full sun, shade (once established), air pollution and flooding, as well as drought to some extent. It has become an invasive weed along watercourses (e.g. in riparian vegetation on riverbanks) and in wet forests and woodland, as well as along roadsides and other disturbed open sites with moist soil"  (NSW PlantNET).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions: Low altitude, interior valleys, coastal mountains, 500 - 2000 m, coastal areas, 0 - 500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3 - 5 months; precipitations of 400 - 800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun; level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Fruit production is high and seeds are dispersed by wind"  (Weber, 2003; p. 21).

Native range:  Guatemala, Mexico, United States and Canada; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 471, 550)
Voucher cited: Danton H(1532)1293
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 134)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 89)
"Very common in cultivation, especially in the South Island. ♀ trees fruit prolifically and spontaneous plants often occur".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alberta, Manitoba, western Ontario, Saskatchewan
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and saplings can be hand pulled or dug out".

Chemical:  "Control includes cutting trees at ground level and treating the cut stumps with herbicides.  2,4-D is a very effective herbicide to control this tree"  (Weber, 2003; p. 21).


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This page was created on 23 JAN 2011 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.