Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acanthospermum hispidum
DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ci bao guo

English: bristly starbur, goat's head, goathead, hispid starburr, starburr, Texas cockspur

French: herbe tricorne

Spanish: carapichno, corona de la reina, cuagrilla, cuajrilla, espinho de cigano

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems erect, 2-8 dm long, diffusely branched, pubescent with long, spreading and also short, appressed hairsLeaves elliptic to ovate, 2-10 cm long, 1-7 cm wide, with glands on lower surface, margins serrate to subentire, gradually narrowed to base, sessile.  Heads 4-5 mm in diameter at anthesis.  Burs cuneate, strongly compressed, 4-7 mm long, the ribs bearing 1-2 rows of hooked prickles 1-2 mm long, the 2 apical prickles stout, curved or straight, 3-4 mm long." (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 252).

"The hairy stem, yellow-green florets, opposite leaves and fruits with hooked spines (two longer than the rest arising from the apex) and arranged in the form of flat stars are the distinguishing characteristics of this species"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 6).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.  It is particularly adapted to light textured soils but also grows well in heavy textured soils.  It is commonly found in cultivated upland crops, roadsides, pastures, waste areas, around corrals, and along railroads and cattle trails. Both seeds and leaves contain phenolic acids that are allelopathic to other plants" (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 6-7).  "Found in a wide range of habitats. Common on roadsides, disturbed areas and around settlements. Known to invade pastures and out-compete more desirable native species. Also a weed of crops and a serious contaminant of wool" (Smith, 2002; p. 56).

Propagation:  "Seed is spread when adhered to clothing, fur, etc. or as a contaminant of hay and fodder. Seeds also float and can be spread by floodwaters. A prolific seeder, however seeds are reported to be relatively short lived, approximately three years." (Smith, 2002; p. 56).

Native range:  Northern South America (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 252).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 15871 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26377)
Taxon name on voucher: Acanthospermum hispidum DC.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 252)
Voucher cited: Hosaka s.n. (BISH). Naturalized on Moloka‘i Ranch
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 4)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 56)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 56)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guangdong, Yunnan
"A weed of streamsides, roadsides, and waste slopes; below 1900 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 273)
In wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 4)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 5)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 4, 10)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ontario
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Prohibited in Western Australia and a declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory (Smith, 2002; p. 56).

Control: 

Physical:  "Good results have been gained where seeds have been vacuumed from the ground and then burnt" (Smith, 2002; p. 56).

Additional information:
Data sheet from the University of Florida (PDF).

Additional online information about Acanthospermum hispidum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Acanthospermum hispidum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Acanthospermum hispidum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 31 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.