Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acacia mearnsii
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Fabaceae


High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment)

Chinese: hei jing

English: black wattle, green wattle, late black wattle, tan wattle

French: acacia noir, mimosa argenté, mosa

Maori (Cook Islands): ākasia

Spanish: acacia negra

"Trees, 9-15 m tall. Branchlets angulate, gray-white tomentose. Young leaves golden tomentose, mature leaves gray pubescent; rachis not angulate; pinnae 6-30 pairs, 0.5-5.5 cm, glands at rachis of pinna insertion and elsewhere; leaflets 10-68 pairs, dense, linear, 0.7-6 x 0.4-0.8(-1) mm, margin, abaxial surface, or sometimes both surfaces pubescent. Heads globose, 6-7 mm in diameter, arranged in axillary racemes or terminal panicles; peduncles 7-10 mm; rachis yellow, densely tomentose. Flowers yellowish or white. Legume black, oblong, flat, 5-10 cm x 4-5 mm, slightly constricted between seeds, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ovoid"  (Flora of China online).

"Unarmed, evergreen tree 5-10 (-15) m high; branchlets shallowly ridged; all parts finely hairy; growth tips golden-hairy.  Leaves:  Dark olive-green, finely hairy, bipinnate; leaflets short (1.5-4 mm) and crowded; raised glands occur at and between the junctions of pinnae pairs.  Flowers:  Pale yellow or cream, globular flowerheads in large, fragrant sprays.  Fruits:  Dark brown pods, finely hairy, usually markedly constricted"  (Henderson, 1995; p. 55).

"Arbre de 5 à 15 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses feuilles bipennées (composées de petites folioles) et ses gousses comprimées au niveau des graines" (Meyer, 2008; p. 35). "Riparian habitats, coastal scrub, dry to mesic forests, grassland" (Weber, 2003; p. 16).  This noxious, evergreen tree often reaches 20 m in height. Apart from producing copious numbers of seeds, it generates numerous suckers resulting in monotypic thickets.  It grows in disturbed, mesic habitats between 600-1,700 m. 

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in pastures and dry to mesic forest, 245-1,220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 642-643). Prolific seeder, closes in pastures and displaces natives in natural areas"  (Mootka et al., 2003).  The species resprouts by basal shoots following fire, thereby generally intensifying the infestation. Australia.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 35, 41)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 642-643)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Higashino & Price 041227-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 642-643)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 642-643)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 642-643)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Hughes 51 (US)
Rapidly spreading, forming monotypic stands, and displacing native species, below 850 m elevation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 642-643)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 707)
"Waste places, scrubland, pasture, riverbanks".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 5)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
Henderson, Lesley (1995)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
On the State of Hawaii noxious weed list. A noxious weed species in South Africa and La Réunion.

Chemical:  "Saplings sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr. Dicamba, glyphosate and picloram applied cut-surface effective, triclopyr probably effective, although applications to drilled holes in larger trees probably necessary. Cut-surface (notching) applications of picloram provided complete control, glyphosate and dicamba caused 80% control, and 2,4-D was inadequate at Kala'e, Molokai. Alton Arakaki (Univ. Hawaii) and Ed Misaki of the Nature Conservancy (TNC) confirmed the efficacy of picloram but got much better results with glyphosate and dicamba, each resulting in over 90% control at Kamakou Preserve. Basal bark and stump bark treatments with 2,4-D or triclopyr effective. Pat Bily (TNC) reported that basal bark applications with triclopyr ester at 20% in oil was effective, as was cut stump application of triclopyr amine at 50% in water.  Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) staff got good control with triclopyr amine at 10% in water applied to cut stumps (Chris Zimmer, HAVO).  Anecdotes indicate that wattle is sensitive to basal bark treatment with diesel alone and to girdling (stripping the bark)."  (Motooka et al., 2003)


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