Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acacia mangium
Willd., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: black wattle, broadleaf salwood, brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium, northern wattle, Sabah salwood, sally wattle

Maori (Cook Islands): ākasia, ākātia, ākātia

Pohnpeian: tuhkehn pwelmwahu

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 7-30 m high, with branches spreading from near ground level or with bole to 4.5 m high. Bark corrugated or coarsely cracked, grey to dark brown. Branchlets stout, acutely angled, brown, fawn or green, glabrous, sometimes scurfy. Phyllodes obliquely narrowly elliptic to elliptic, normally 11-27 cm long, 30-95 mm wide, thinly coriaceous or papery, glabrous, with 3 or 4 (-5) main prominent nerves (confluent at base of phyllodes near lower margin); minor nerves strongly anastomosing to form a fine reticulum, with elongated interstices; gland 1, basal, to 4.5 mm above pulvinus. Spikes 5-12 cm long, loosely arranged, white to cream-coloured. Flowers 5-merous; calyx 0.6-0.8 mm long, dissected to 1/5-1/4, pubescent; corolla 1.8-2 mm long, dissected to 1/2, with glabrous petals; ovary densely hairy. Pods linear, openly coiled and twisted or sometimes tightly spirally coiled, 3-5.5 mm wide, coriaceous to subwoody, glabrous. Seeds longitudinal, oblong-elliptic to slightly reniform, 3.5-5 mm long, black, minutely pitted; areole almost closed; aril bright orange"  (Flora of Australia online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Best suited to high rainfall areas and deep soils."  (Elliot and Jones, 1982; p. 81)

Propagation:  Seed.

Native range:  Australia (Queensland), Molluccan Islands, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (Irian Jaya).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 39)
Not common.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 687363)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes)
Not common.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Not common.
Sparingly naturalized.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 7092 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666206)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 389)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Vouchers: Flynn 7016 (PTBG), Flynn 7030 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 349)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 361)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Some naturalization.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 33)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 42754)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (pp. 67-68)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED137 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: OED 2010031101 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: M. Keir s.n. (BISH 695023), M. Keir s.n. (BISH 695024), A. Lau s.n. (BISH 731069), A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2007092703 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: Gay in MacKee 42354
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 84)
Sparingly naturalized.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9913 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 206)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 81)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 250)
Planted at Lamao, also formerly grown in Manila.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 130)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 9)
Naturalised
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  A small amount of planting on Saipan. One isolated individual naturalized seedling was noted on disturbed soil (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

On Pohnpei, a patch of naturalized seedlings without a local seed source was noted. Should be monitored for naturalization and spread (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

Spreading from an old species trial on Yap (per Duane Nelson, pers. com.)

Reported as invasive in Sabah and Africa (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; p. 241). Reported to be invasive on Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia (Grant Flanagan, pers. com.).

Control: 

Physical: Girdle large trees, pull seedlings.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Acacia mangium is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Acacia mangium as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Acacia mangium may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Report on Acacia mangium from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project

Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site about Acacia mangium

Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual on Acacia mangium

Information on Acacia mangium from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database

Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database about Acacia mangium

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 666206 (Sykes, W.R. 474802).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1999. Voucher specimen #BISH 687363 (Flynn, T. 6599).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Elliot, W. R./Jones, D. L. 1982. Encyclopaedia of Australia plants. Lothian Pub. Co., Melbourne.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2008. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2007. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100:3-12.

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2012. New plant records for the Hawaiian Islands 2010-2011. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:27-54.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2013. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Ministry of the Environment, Korea. 2013. ASEAN tropical plant database (online resource).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG348(Tim Flynn 7015).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG349(Tim Flynn 7016).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG361(Tim Flynn 7028).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG389(Tim Flynn 7092).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2008. Voucher specimen #PTBG206(David H. Lorence 9913).

Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in south-southeast Asia: national reports and directory of resources. Global Invasive Species Programme. 111 pp.

Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby. 2012. New plant records from the Big Island for 2010-2011. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:65-74.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.