Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acacia mangium
Willd., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: black wattle, broadleaf salwood, brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium, northern wattle, Sabah salwood, sally wattle

Maori (Cook Islands): ākasia, ākātia, ākātia

Pohnpeian: tuhkehn pwelmwahu

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 7-30 m high, with branches spreading from near ground level or with bole to 4.5 m high. Bark corrugated or coarsely cracked, grey to dark brown. Branchlets stout, acutely angled, brown, fawn or green, glabrous, sometimes scurfy. Phyllodes obliquely narrowly elliptic to elliptic, normally 11-27 cm long, 30-95 mm wide, thinly coriaceous or papery, glabrous, with 3 or 4 (-5) main prominent nerves (confluent at base of phyllodes near lower margin); minor nerves strongly anastomosing to form a fine reticulum, with elongated interstices; gland 1, basal, to 4.5 mm above pulvinus. Spikes 5-12 cm long, loosely arranged, white to cream-coloured. Flowers 5-merous; calyx 0.6-0.8 mm long, dissected to 1/5-1/4, pubescent; corolla 1.8-2 mm long, dissected to 1/2, with glabrous petals; ovary densely hairy. Pods linear, openly coiled and twisted or sometimes tightly spirally coiled, 3-5.5 mm wide, coriaceous to subwoody, glabrous. Seeds longitudinal, oblong-elliptic to slightly reniform, 3.5-5 mm long, black, minutely pitted; areole almost closed; aril bright orange"  (Flora of Australia online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Best suited to high rainfall areas and deep soils."  (Elliot and Jones, 1982; p. 81)

Propagation:  Seed.

Native range:  Australia (Queensland), Molluccan Islands, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (Irian Jaya).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 39)
Not common.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 687363)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes)
Not common.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Not common.
Sparingly naturalized.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 7092 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666206)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 389)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Vouchers: Flynn 7016 (PTBG), Flynn 7030 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 349)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 361)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Some naturalization.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 33)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 42754)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (pp. 67-68)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED137 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: OED 2010031101 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: M. Keir s.n. (BISH 695023), M. Keir s.n. (BISH 695024), A. Lau s.n. (BISH 731069), A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2007092703 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: Gay in MacKee 42354
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 84)
Sparingly naturalized.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9913 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 206)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia mangium Willd.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 81)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 250)
Planted at Lamao, also formerly grown in Manila.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 130)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 9)
Naturalised
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  A small amount of planting on Saipan. One isolated individual naturalized seedling was noted on disturbed soil (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

On Pohnpei, a patch of naturalized seedlings without a local seed source was noted. Should be monitored for naturalization and spread (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

Spreading from an old species trial on Yap (per Duane Nelson, pers. com.)

Reported as invasive in Sabah and Africa (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; p. 241). Reported to be invasive on Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia (Grant Flanagan, pers. com.).

Control: 

Physical: Girdle large trees, pull seedlings.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.