Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acacia farnesiana
(L.) Willd., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Mimosa farnesiana L.; Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: kandaroma, kandaroma

Chinese: jin he huan

English: aroma, cassie, Ellington curse, fragrant acacia, huisache, ironwood, klu, mimos bush, mimosa bush, opopanax, popinac, prickly mimosa-bush, prickly moses, prickly-mimosa, scented wattle, sweet acacia, sweet wattle

Fijian: oki, vaivai vakavotona

French: acacia jaune, cassie ancienne, cassie Farnese, cassie jaune, mimosa de Farnése, zépinard

Hawaiian: kolū

Hindi: ban baburi, khatta falli

I-Kiribati: te bakoa, te kai bakoa, te kaibakoa

Maori (Cook Islands): titima

Nauruan: debena, katin

Spanish: aromo, bayahonda, cambrón, coromo, espino blanco, popine

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub, 1.5-4 m high.  Bark smooth, brown to grey.  Branchlets brown to reddish, terete, lenticular, glabrous.  Stipules persistent, white, spinose, subulate, 4-28 mm long, glabrous.  Leaves bipinnate.  Pulvinus 1-3 mm long, glabrous.  Leaf rachis 5-55 mm long, 1-4 pairs of pinnae per leaf, hairy on grooved upper surface, jugary glands present, interjugary glands absent; pinnae 6-32 mm long, 5-14 pairs of leaflets per pinna; leaflets linear-oblong, flat, 5.5-10 mm long, 2-3.2 mm wide L/W 2.8-4.3, concolorous, glabrous.  Inflorescences on simple axillary peduncles.  Heads globular, yellow, 10-11 mm wide; peduncle 10-28 mm long, hairy.  Pods stipitate or sessile, dark brown, paler on sutures, linear to oblong, straight or curved, cylindrical, indehiscent, 40-70 mm long, 8-12 mm wide, glabrous, longitudinally wrinkled, apiculate.  Seeds oblique in pod, olivaceous, irregularly ellipsoid, 6-9 mm long, 4.5-5.5 mm wide" (Dunlop et al., 1995).

"Erect much-branched shrub; leaves with 4-8 pairs of pinnae, pinnae with 10-12 pairs of small leaflets; stipular thorns straight and slender; flowers in pedunculate axillary heads, 1-3 heads together, subglobose; flowers yellow, fragrant; heads about 1.3 mm across; stamens numerous; pods dark brown or black, up to 8 cm long, to 12 mm broad, plump, often slightly curved; pulp within sweetish; seeds compressed, elliptic, brown"  (Stone, 1970; p. 296).

"Arbuste de 1 à 4 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses feuilles composées de 1 à 7 paires de pennes divisées chacune en 8 à 25 paires de petites folioles, ses grandes épines, ses inflorescences globuleuses (glomérules) de petites fleurs de couleur jaune vif, et ses gousses de 2 à 8 cm de long" (Meyer, 2008; p. 30).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m.  "This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4 m in height, sometimes forming impenetrable thickets, although in most areas it forms a more open cover. Although the aerial portions may be killed by fire, it soon regenerates from basal shoots"  (C.W. Smith, 1985; p. 183). "Sweet acacia is a drought-hardy, fire-resistant species that does not tolerate frost and grows well in areas receiving between 500 and 750 mm of rainfall with a dry season of 4 to 6 months (Webb and others 1980). Its best growth occurs on well-drained soils. It tolerates heavy clays to sands and a variety of soil conditions, including saline soils, at elevations up to 2,000 m. A light-demanding species, sweet acacia often forms dense thickets on disturbed sites and is associated with numerous other shrub and tree species in secondary thorn woodlands, shrublands, and dry forests in its tropical and subtropical American range (Rzendowski 1981)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Fiji, "naturalized near sea level along roadsides, in cultivated areas and pastures, and on beaches and dry river banks " (A.C. Smith, 1985; pp. 69-70).  In Hawai‘i, "formerly cultivated for an attempted perfume industry, now naturalized and common, sometimes becoming a pest, in dry, open, disturbed areas, 2-400 m (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 641).

"Elle est devenue envahissante en Australie et dans les îles du Pacifique (Hawaii, Fidji, Guam, Nouvelle-Calédonie et Polynésie française) où elle forme des fourrés très denses dans les zones sèches et littorales, les zones cultivées et les pâturages" (Meyer, 2008; p. 30). In New Caledonia, "planté jadis par des éleveurs qui l'estimaient comme fourrage de réserve utile en temps de sécheresse. Toujours commun, surtout sur la côte Ouest" (MacKee, 1994; p. 76); "naturalisé autour de Nouméa" (Balansa 315, 1868, cited in MacKee, 1994; p. 76).

Propagation:  Seeds are dispersed by ungulates which eat the pods. "Natural reproduction is abundant, particularly on disturbed sites and in active pastures where cattle readily consume the pods"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

"Ses gousses sont consommées par les animaux herbivores qui disséminent les graines" (Meyer, 2008; p. 30).

Native range:  Tropical and subtropical Americas; widely cultivated & naturalized, exact native range obscure (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 30, 41)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31427 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 152464)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 82145)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
"Potential invader"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 152423)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420136)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 69-70)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 33, Greenwood 33A, Smith 4728, DA 18853, DA 9482, DA 10444, Parks 20856, DA 7896, DA 10752, Vaughan 3436, DA 14528, DA 9003
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 32801)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 147568)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 152363)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 152433)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-C. Thibault 1042 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4090 (PAP), J. Florence 4401 (PAP), J. Florence 8392 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491171)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 541034)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 553693)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554566)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman, J.-Y. Meyer, B. Kohumoetini & E. Vogt 15885 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 137)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 177
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 296)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 152463)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H109913 (BISH), Oppenheimer H109920 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Nikunau Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Thaman, Randolph R. (1992)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 31198)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 90)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Potential invader".
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 135)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58640 (US), Scully 159N (US?), Swarbrick 9568 (BRIU)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438323)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: Däniker 17a (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Balabio introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: MacKee 29305
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Toujours commune, surtout sur la côte Ouest.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 315, Schlechter 14856, A. Heim 88 (Z), MacKee 4062, MacKee 28851
Naturalisé autour de Nouvéa
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 664511)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 84)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 209)
Used in the manufacture of perfume.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 249)
In open grasslands, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, especially common in regions subject to a long dry season.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 165)
Dominant invader.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 55)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 641)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-3)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 3)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 130)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
Present status not known.
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
"Common in south of group, rare in north".
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 123)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  An invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu (Waterhouse, 1997). Reported by Waterhouse (1997) to be present in Niue but not seen there.

Control:  "La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plantules et coupe des arbustes associée à une lutte chimique par traitement des souches avec un herbicide (à base de triclopyr et/ou dicamba) sont réalisables" (Meyer, 2008; p. 30).

Physical: "Destroyed by cultivation and grubbing." (Swarbrick, 1997)

Chemical: "Probably susceptible to: 1) translocated herbicides, including picloram, metsulfuorn-methyl, glyphosate and triclopyr, and possibly 2,4-D applied to the foliage, freshly cut stumps or by stem injection at standard rates; 2) residual herbicides, including tebuthiuron and hexazinone" (Swarbrick, 1997).

"Sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr at 1 lb/acre and metsulfuron at 0.45 oz/a and to basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr at 2% in diesel. Drizzle applications were not effective in foliar and basal bark trials at Kihei, Maui, but these trials were confounded by a severe drought" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Fact sheet and identification guide from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF Format).
Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database.

Additional online information about Acacia farnesiana is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Acacia farnesiana as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Acacia farnesiana may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 31198 (Adair, F. 228).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 152463 (Thompson, J.B. 216).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 152363 (Parks, H.E. 20856).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 152423 (Wilder, G.P. 935).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 152433 (Smith, A.C. 4728).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 152464 (Fosberg, F.R. 31275).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 32801 (Koroiveibau, D. 10444).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 82145 (Stoddart, D.R. 2304).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 664511 (McKee, H.S. 28851).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 147568 (Vodonaivali, S. 18853).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 420136 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1555).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438323 (Fosberg, F.R. 58640).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491171 (Florence, J. 4090).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 554566 (Florence, J. 4401).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 553693 (Florence, J. 6934).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 541034 (Florence, J. 8392).

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. 2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:1-14.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd. 2008. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. Prepared for: United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 pp. plus appendices.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 93 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.