Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Acacia auriculiformis
A.Cunn. ex Benth., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye xiang si

English: auri, black wattle, Darwin black wattle, earleaf acacia, earpod wattle, northern black wattle, Papuan wattle, tan wattle

French: acacia auriculé

Maori (Cook Islands): ākasia

Pohnpeian: tuhkehn pwelmwahu

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, evergreen, to 20 m tall. Bark gray-white, smooth. Branches pendulous; branchlets angular, glabrous, with conspicuous lenticels. Phyllodes falcate-oblong, 10-20 x 1.5-4 (-6) cm, conspicuous main veins 3 or 4, both ends attenuate. Spikes 1 to several, fasciculate, axillary or terminal, 3.5-8 cm. Flowers orange-yellow. Calyx 0.5-1 mm, shallowly dentate. Petals oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Filaments 2.5-4 mm. Ovary densely puberulent. Legume contorted when mature, 5-8 x 0.8-1.2 cm, valves woody. Seeds ca. 12, black, ca. 5 x 3.5 mm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  A commonly planted forestry tree. Can become naturalized where planted. An environmental pest in southern Florida (Hammer, 1996; p. 24)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 13)
Not common.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
Not common.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 22)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Sparingly naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Voucher: Flynn 7044 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 367)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 6, 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 6, 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 6, 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7876 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649171)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21082)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis Cunn. ex Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Sparingly naturalized.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 87)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3943 (NY, PTBG), D.H. Lorence 8101 (MO, NY, PTBG, US)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34629)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28679)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis Cunn. ex Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Sparingly naturalized.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 33)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 659658)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2007) (pp. 9-10)
Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich s.n. 0611292 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 108)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 95)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 18)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 18)
Some spreading noted in open areas and on mineral soil. Voucher: Lorence 9893 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697860)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697861)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697873)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4423)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9430)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 186)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48185)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 18)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1989) (voucher ID: BISH 634812)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 90)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Voucher: Flynn 6962 (PTBG, B, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41460)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 508808)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 129)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 45949)
Taxon name on voucher: Acacia auriculiformis
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 89)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 9)
Naturalised
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 102)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Little natural regeneration of this species seen in Micronesia (Space & Falanru, 1999). Some naturalization noted, mostly on bare soil, on Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Observed on the Chuuk islands of Weno, Tol and Fefan; probably present on other islands as well (Space et al., 2000).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical: Girdle, pull seedlings.

Chemical: Triclopyr herbicide mixed with an oil diluent (Randall et al., 1996; p. 24)

Additional information:
Report (PDF format) from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii".
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF Format).
Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database.

Additional online information about Acacia auriculiformis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Acacia auriculiformis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Acacia auriculiformis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Bailey, L. H./Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York. 1290 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1991. Voucher specimen #BNM9430(collector unknown 9430).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2007. Voucher specimen #BNM4423(Balick et al. 4423).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 659658 (Fosberg, F.R. 59791).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 508808 (Krauss, N.H. 3050).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1989. Voucher specimen #BISH 634812 (Adelbai, H. P-10197).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 649171 (Lorence, D.H. 7876).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 697860 (Herbst, D.R. 9826).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 697861 (Herbst, D.R. 9826).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 697873 (Herbst, D.R. 9826).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Elliot, W. R./Jones, D. L. 1982. Encyclopaedia of Australia plants. Lothian Pub. Co., Melbourne.

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2007. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:8-13.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG34629(M. J. Balick 3943).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG271(Tim Flynn 6962).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG367(Tim Flynn 7044).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG41460(Tim Flynn 6962).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2008. Voucher specimen #PTBG186(David H. Lorence 9893).

Neal, Marie C. 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 50, Bishop Museum Press. 924 pp.

Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in south-southeast Asia: national reports and directory of resources. Global Invasive Species Programme. 111 pp.

Randall, J. M./Marinelli, J. (eds.). 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook 149. 111 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.