Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Abies nordmanniana
(Steven) Spach, Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.; Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Mattf.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Caucasian fir, Nordmann Christmastree, Nordmann fir, Turkey fir

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large tree to c. 30 m high; trunk grey, smooth, except for slightly fissured bark near base. Shoots brown, short, hairy, grooved. Buds ovoid, not resinous; bud scales slightly keeled, appressed. Foliage ± pectinate and at right angles to shoot on older and lower parts of shoot, dense and sloping forwards to cover upper side towards shoot apex. Leaves 1.5-3.5-(4.5) cm long (often smaller on coning shoots), glossy dark green above; stomatal bands white below; resin ducts mostly marginal, ± median on ♀ coning shoots; apex emarginate. ♂ strobili crimson, < 1 cm long. Mature cones on upper branches, 12-18 cm long, broad-cylindric, brown; ovuliferous scales very broad, rounded; bracts exserted, the cuspidate tip 3-4 mm long and pointing upwards. Seed wing c. 1.5 cm long, truncate at apex"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 47).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand: "Modified forest areas near planted trees. Widely planted in large gardens, parks and domains. Regeneration is generally uncommon but it has been reported occasionally"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 47).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Turkey and Georgia (GRIN); also cultivated (GRIN).


Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 13)
Escape from cultivation.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 47)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Abies nordmanniana, please let us know.

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This page was created on 2 OCT 2012 and was last updated on 4 OCT 2012.