Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Abelmoschus moschatus
Medik., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Abelmoschus sagittifolius (Kurz) Merr. [=Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus]; Hibiscus abelmoschus L.; Hibiscus sagittifolius Kurz [=Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus]

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: fautia

Chamorro: caamung, kámang, kamang

Chinese: huang kui

Chuukese: karereon, karereon nikapwerik nik, kareron, likonokon, niikapwériik, niikownown, nikapwerik, nikokon, setmwechin, sotumo

English: annual hibiscus, musk okra, muskmallow, musky-seeded hibiscus, native rosella, ornamental okra, tropical jewel hibiscus

Fijian: aukiki, o‘e‘e, okeoke, vakeke, wakeke, wakewake, wakiwaki

French: ambrette, gombo musqué, graine de musc, ketmie des marais, ketmie musquée

Japanese: Ryûkyû tororo aoi

Mangarevan: pukawa

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘aute, ta‘uri‘au, vavai tara, vavai tara, vavai tara, vavai tara

Niuean: fou hele, fou ingo

Palauan: gongul

Pohnpeian: kaanth, matai, metei, metey, methey, tehmetei

Samoan: ‘aute toga, ‘aute toga, fau mageso, fau samasama, fau Tagaloa, fau tagaloa, fau Tagaloa, vavae Samoa

Solomon Pijin: te vasivasiakarai

Tagalog: dalupang, kastiokastiokan, kastuli

Tahitian: fautia, foutheea, pukawa

Tongan: fau‘ingo, loa

Ulithian: hathongethong

Wallisian: fau ingo

Yapese: kamwayang

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb or undershrub, 0.25-1.50 m, with taproot or root-tuber.  Stems solid, rarely fistular, as the petioles and pedicels, and both surfaces of the leaves mostly hispid by simple hairs, usually also with minute stellate hairs, rarely glabrous.  Leaves extremely variable in shape and size, in outline mostly orbicular to transversally elliptic, at base usually cordate, not incised, angular, or 3-7-palmilobed to -palmiparted, of the upper leaves usually narrower and often hastate or sagittate, with deltoid, triangular, ovate, obovate, spatulate, oblong, lanceolate or linear, sometimes pennilobed, obtuse, acute or acuminate segments, coarsely serrate to dentate, rarely entire, at base 5-9-nerved, without nectaries.  Stipules linear to filiform, simply hairy.  Flowers axillary, solitary.  Pedicel ± accrescent.  Epicalyx segments 7-10, rarely more, free, persistent, linear, filiform, lanceolate or oblong, usually acute, with simple hairs.  Calyx outside stellate-tomentose, inside simply sericeous.  Petals obovate, at apex rounded, at base fleshy and ciliate by simple hairs, for the rest scattered gland-hairs or glabrous.  Staminal column mostly yellow, at base dark purple, glabrous.   Ovary ovoid, hirsute; style hairy.  Capsule ovoid or globose, occasionally fusiform, acuminate with a short  rostrum, somewhat angular, usually hispid by simple, stiff hairs, often also with short simple hairs and minute stellate hairs, rarely glabrous, black or dark brown; valves chartaceous, inside smooth and shining.  Seeds concentrically ribbed, somewhat warty, mostly glabrous, sometimes ferrugineously stellate-tomentose, black-brown" (Borssum Waalkes, 1966; p. 90)

"Coarsely hispid herb to 1 or 1.5 m tall, leaves ovate-suborbicular, usually 3-5-lobed, to 15 cm long; stems hirsute; calyx greenish, spathe-like, caducous; corolla bright yellow with a darker or purplish eye, 8-10 cm wide; fruit a hirsute capsule 6-8 cm long, ovoid-cylindric; seeds musky-scented" (Stone, 1970; p. 408).

Habitat/ecology:  Weedy in open and disturbed areas.  In Guam, "it occurs in marshy locations" (Stone, 1970; p 408).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to an elevation of about 450 m as a weed naturalized in gardens, plantations, ricefields, and clearings, and also occurring along trails and on the edges of forest"  (Smith, 1981; p. 423).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India, southern China and tropical Asia, into the Pacific (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3046
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3046
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3064
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (pp. 50-51)
Voucher cited: Garber 1085 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1925) (voucher ID: BISH 157653)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430269)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37087)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: Judd s.n., Garber 601, Yuncker 9035, Yuncker 9298, Whistler 1418
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (pp. 50-51)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9298(BISH), Yuncker 9035 (BISH), Garber 601 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 157643)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 157644)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 157646)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 157647)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 157648)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 157649)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 11056)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34601)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 71)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1920) (voucher ID: BISH 157654)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 409636)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1646 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58829
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 667815)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 157677)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 96)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 63)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 157658)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664884)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 157681)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 157692)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 157688)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 157689)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Yanagi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633397)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucheer: BMW 5755 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7860 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21125)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 67)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4103 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 67 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 141 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 189 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 68 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 108 (PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26334 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 60462 (BISH, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2760 (BISH), S. Perlman 21397 (PTBG), A. Raynor 93 (NY, PTBG), S.H. Riesenberg 80 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 764 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 886 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1262 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 157685)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 157686)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 157691)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 157694)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 157695)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 188889)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 652816)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 22138)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42987)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43581)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43678)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46134)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 48902)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 50090)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46714 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 157693)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 157683)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 157631)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 423)
Voucher cited: Bryan 499
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 157632)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 637946)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 157633)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 423)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 571, DA 10755, DA 12039, DA 13115, Seemann 19, Gillespie 4773
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 14745)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 698397)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 423)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1111
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 423)
Vouchers cited: Degener 15061, Gillespie 2933, Gillespie 4385.2, DA 10029, DA 2086, DA 10941, DA 5614, Storck 869
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 157634)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 157635)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 157637)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: St. John 14670 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Agassiz 115 (GH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64954 (US)
Rare
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 173)
Vouchers cited: Moore 265, Florence 3460, BRY 26420
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3460 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491364)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 173)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 586801)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 586803)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 173)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26043, BRY 26345
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
Also subsp. tuberosus (J.B. Spanoghe) J. Borssum-Waalkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2906 (PAP), J. Florence 4659 (PAP), J. Florence 7614 (PAP), J. Florence & J.-C. Jolinon 8095 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 200 (PAP), J.-Y. Meyer 484 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 65032 (PAP); also subsp. tuberosus (J.B. Spanoghe) J. Borssum Waalkes, cultivated.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 553688)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 659370)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11224 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11305 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643334)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 156-159)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 157657)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 408)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4312 (GUAM), Stone 4449 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 157675)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 157676)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 157682)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 870)
Voucher cited: Rock s.n. (BISH)
Present status unknown.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 142)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
Confirmed by personal communication.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 25)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 96)
Voucher cited: Däniker 3010 (Z)
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 96)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 1054, Däniker 2563 (Z), MacKee 29408
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 112)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170324, CHR 170325, CHR 170326, CHR 170333
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 29)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6700 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 92)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9636 (BISH), Yuncker 10162 (BISH)
"Frequent in clearings and waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30172)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625621)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625687)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1992) (voucher ID: BNM 93)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9796 (PTBG, BNM, NY,TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 89)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 365)
Abundant, waste places particularly on damp ground. Also var alba, abundant in Imperata grassland. The plant has a tuberous root which enables it to survive fires and dry periods.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 46)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 40)
In open, usually moist grasslands, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Voucher: Flynn 6949 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 157651)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 157652)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1906) (voucher ID: BISH 157655)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1906) (voucher ID: BISH 440245)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 281)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28554)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 157650)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417680)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Anuta Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 80084)
Taxon name on voucher: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Soakai 562
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41302)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Parks 16208
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15585
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 157641)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 157645)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Soakai 200
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41190)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 349)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Crosby 5
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16030
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 28)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 157642)
Taxon name on voucher: Hibiscus abelmoschus
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 29)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
Hyland, B. P. M./Whiffin, T./Zich, F. A. (2013)
subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss.Waalk. Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Hyland, B. P. M./Whiffin, T./Zich, F. A. (2013)
subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss.Waalk.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Hyland, B. P. M./Whiffin, T./Zich, F. A. (2013)
subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss.Waalk.
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 97)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 9)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 26)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Todd 2741
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Smith (1981, p. 423) says it's probably an inadvertent aboriginal introduction to Fiji. Drake et al. (1996, pp. 65-77) list it as a Polynesian introduction to Tonga. It was not seen on ‘Eua or Vava‘u, Tonga, in 2001 (Space & Flynn) so it must be fairly rare at those locations.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Abelmoschus moschatus is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Abelmoschus moschatus as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Abelmoschus moschatus may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Information on Abelmoschus moschatus from the Global Invasive Species Database

Information on Abelmoschus moschatus from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database

Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database about Abelmoschus moschatus

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1992. Voucher specimen #BNM93(Kepler, A.K. 92-88).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1906. Voucher specimen #BISH 157655 (Vaupel, F. 227).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1906. Voucher specimen #BISH 440245 (Vaupel, F. 227).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 157675 (Nelson, P. 56).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 157682 (Nelson, P. 56).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1920. Voucher specimen #BISH 157654 (Setchell, W.A. 525).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 157648 (Garber, D.W. 601).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 157657 (Aitken, R.T. 922).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 157632 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 499).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1925. Voucher specimen #BISH 157653 (Garber, D.W. 1085).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1926. Voucher specimen #BISH 157645 (Parks, H.E. 16208).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 157634 (Gillespie, J.W. 4385.2).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 157635 (Gillespie, J.W. 2933).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 157631 (Gillespie, J.W. 4419).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 157633 (Gillespie, J.W. 4773).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 157650 (Christophersen, E. 528).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 157651 (Christophersen, E. 686).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 157652 (Christophersen, E. 722).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 157658 (Wilder, G.P. 942).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 157646 (Judd, A.F.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 157647 (Judd, A.F.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 157649 (Judd, A.F.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 157688 (Takamatsu, M. 152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 409636 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 985).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 157685 (Takamatsu, M. 886).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 157686 (Takamatsu, M. 764).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 157643 (Yuncker, T.G. 9298).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 157644 (Yuncker, T.G. 9035).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 157637 (Degener, O. 15061).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 157689 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2717).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 157691 (Fosberg, F.R. 26334).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 157692 (Pelzer, K.J. 101).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 157681 (Wong, C.C.Y. 212).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 157683 (Lessa, W.A. 25).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 157695 (Riesenberg, S.H. 80).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 157694 (Glassman, S.F. 2760).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 157677 (Fosberg, F.R. 31796).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 157641 (Yuncker, T.G. 15585).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 157642 (Yuncker, T.G. 16030).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 157693 (Abbott, D.P. 135).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 14745 (Koroiveibau, D. 10755).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 698397 (Koroiveibau, D. 10755).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 41190 (Soakai, E. 200).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 41302 (Soakai, E. 562).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 157676 (Perez, G.S.A. 75).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28554 (Bristol, M.L. 2022).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 80084 (Deyen 18360).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417680 (Whistler, W.A. W 622).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430269 (Whistler, W.A. W 3064).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 188889 (Fosberg, F.R. 58484).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 652816 (Fosberg, F.R. 60462).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491364 (Florence, J. 3460).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 586801 (Fosberg, F.R. 63494).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 586803 (Fosberg, F.R. 63431).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 667815 (Herbst, D.R. 7500).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 659370 (Fosberg, F.R. 65032).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 553688 (Florence, J. 8095).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 664884 (Sykes, W.R. 473922).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 637946 (McClatchey, W.C. 136).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625621 (A.K.Kepler 92-89).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625687 (A.K.Kepler 92-88).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643334 (Florence 11305).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633397 (A.K.Kepler 93-114).

Borssum Waalkes, J. V. 1966. Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea 14.

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Drake, D. R./Whistler, W. A./Motley, T. J./Imada, C. T. 1996. Rain forest vegetation of ‘Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:65-77.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Hyland, B. P. M./Whiffin, T./Zich, F. A. 2013. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Edition 6 (online resource).

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. 1985. Contribution à la connaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis & Futuna. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e sér., 7, section B. Adansonia 3 : 259-329.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1980. Voucher specimen #PTBG22138(F. R. Fosberg 60462).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1991. Voucher specimen #PTBG11056(Art Whistler 7922).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1996. Voucher specimen #PTBG21125(David H. Lorence 7860).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2000. Voucher specimen #PTBG30172(Tim Flynn 6700).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG37087(Diane Ragone 2001-07).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34601(David H. Lorence 8539).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG281(Tim Flynn 6949).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2008. Voucher specimen #PTBG89(David H. Lorence 9796).

Ohba, T. 1994. Flora and vegetation of the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Biological Expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In A. Asakua & T. Furuki, eds.  Natural History Research, Special issue no. 1, Chiba, Japan: Natural History Museum and Institute. pp. 13-69.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Porcher, Michel H. 2013. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne, Australia. Online resource.

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. 1996. A botanical reconnaissance of the proposed Compact-impact road alignment on Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau. U. of Guam Herbarium Cont. No. 32. 78 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

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Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

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Sykes, W. R. 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia 2(6):323-353.

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Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

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Whistler, W. A. 1990. The weeds of Manu‘a [unpublished checklist]. 18 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

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Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.