Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

Report on invasive plant species in Tonga

Appendix 1.

Background material and references:

Cronk, Q. C. B., and J. L. Fuller. 1995. Plant invaders. Chapman and Hall. 241 pp.

Crosby, C. S. 1901. Vegetation of Vava‘a. In The Flora of Vava‘a, by Burkill. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35: 21-24.

Csurhes, S. and R. Edwards. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

D’Antonio, C. M., and P. M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass-fire cycle, and global change. Ann. Rev. Ecol. And System. 23:63-87.

Drake, D. R., W. A. Whistler, T. J. Motley and C. T. Imada. 1996. Rain forest vegetation of ‘Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:65-77.

Drake, J., F. di Castri, R. Groves, F. Kruger, H. Mooney, R. Rejmanek and M. Williamson, eds. 1989. Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 525 pp.

Fosberg, F. R., M.-H. Sachet and R. L. Oliver. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R., M.-H. Sachet and R. L. Oliver. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Hafliger, E. and H. Scholz. 1980. Grass Weeds. CIBA-GEIBY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. Two volumes.

Hafliger, E. 1980. Monocot Weeds. CIBA-GEIBY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 132 pp. plus plates.

Holm, Leroy G., D. L. Plucknett, J. V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: Distribution and Ecology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Hughes, Colin E. 1994. Risks of species introductions in tropical forestry. Commonwealth Forestry Review 73(4):243-252.

Lloyd, C. G. and W. H. Aiken. 1934. Flora of Samoa. Lloyd Library and Museum of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica, Bulletin No. 33. 113 pp. plus index.

MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeogrphy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press. 203 pp.

Meyer, J-Y. 1998. Mécanismes et gestion des invasions biologiques par des plantes introduites dans des forêts naturales à Hawai‘i et Polynésie Française: une étude de cas [Mechanisms and management of biological invasions by alien plants in Hawaiian and French Polynesian natural forests: a case study]. Dèlégation à la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Meyer, J-Y. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries) in: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, J-Y, and J. Florence. 1996. Tahiti's native flora endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae). Journal of Biogeography 23:775-781.

Mueller-Dombois, D., and F. R. Fosberg. 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific Islands. New York, Springer-Verlag. 733 pp.

Parham, J. W. 1972. Plants of the Fiji Islands. Suva, Fiji: Gov. Printer. 462 pp.

Parsons, W. T. and E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Smith, A. C. 1979-1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Six Volumes.

Stone, B. C. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia 2(6):323-353.

Thaman, R. R. and M. Tuiwawa. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

Uhe, G. 1972. The composition of the plant communities inhabiting the recent volcanic ejecta of Niuafo‘ou, Tonga. Trop. Ecol. 15(1&2):126-139.

Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii, revised edition with supplement by Wagner, W. L. and D. R. Herbst, pp. 1855-1918. University of Hawaii Press, 1919 pp. in 2 volumes.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Supplement 2. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 138 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 302 pp.

Waterhouse, D.F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 69 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. and K. R. Norris. 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 454 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A.. 1983. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A.. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992a. Vegetation of Samoa and Tonga. Pac. Sci. 46(2):159-178.

Whistler, W. A. 1992b. Unpublished checklist.

Whistler, W. A. 1992c. Tongan herbal medicine. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 122 pp.

Whistler, W. A.. 1995. Wayside Plants of the Islands. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 202 pp.

Williamson, M. 1996. Biological Invasions. Chapman and Hall. 244 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 1-126.

Yuncker, T.G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220:1-343.

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