Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

Report on invasive plant species in Samoa

Appendix 7. Background material and references

Binggeli, P. 1996. A taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological overview of invasive woody plants. Jour. Veg. Sci. 7:121-124.

Cole, T. G., C. D. Whitesell, W. A. Whistler, N. McKay and A. H. Ambacher. 1988. Vegetation survey and forest inventory, American Samoa. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bull. PSW-25. USDA Forest Service. 14 pp. plus map.

Cronk, Q. C. B., and J. L. Fuller. 1995. Plant invaders. Chapman and Hall. 241 pp.

Csurhes, S. and R. Edwards. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

D’Antonio, C. M., and P. M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass-fire cycle, and global change. Ann. Rev. Ecol. And System. 23:63-87.

Drake, J., F. di Castri, R. Groves, F. Kruger, H. Mooney, R. Rejmanek and M. Williamson, eds. 1989. Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 525 pp.

Hafliger, E. and H. Scholz. 1980. Grass Weeds. CIBA-GEIBY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. Two volumes.

Hafliger, E. 1980. Monocot Weeds. CIBA-GEIBY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 132 pp. plus plates.

Harley, K. L. S., and I. W. Forno. 1992. Biological control of weeds: A handbook for practitioners and students. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 74 pp.

Holm, Leroy G., D. L. Plucknett, J. V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: Distribution and Ecology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Hughes, Colin E. 1994. Risks of species introductions in tropical forestry. Commonwealth Forestry Review 73(4):243-252.

Julien, M. H. (ed.) 1992. Biological control of weeds: A world catalogue of agents and their target weeds (third edition). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 89-108, 138-141.

Large, M. F. and Q. C. B. Cronk. 1996. Ardisia: the next pest? Aliens 4:4.

Lloyd, C. G. and W. H. Aiken. 1934. Flora of Samoa. Lloyd Library and Museum of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica, Bulletin No. 33. 113 pp. plus index.

MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeogrphy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press. 203 pp.

Meyer, J-Y. 1998. Mécanismes et gestion des invasions biologiques par des plantes introduites dans des forêts naturales à Hawai‘i et Polynésie Française: une étude de cas [Mechanisms and management of biological invasions by alien plants in Hawaiian and French Polynesian natural forests: a case study]. Dèlégation à la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Meyer, J-Y. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries) in: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, J-Y, and J. Florence. 1996. Tahiti's native flora endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae). Journal of Biogeography 23:775-781.

Mueller-Dombois, D., and F. R. Fosberg. 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific Islands. New York, Springer-Verlag. 733 pp.

Ogle, C.C.  2001. Exotic plants of the Aleipata Islands, Samoa.  IAS Technical Report No. 2001/08.  Institute of Applied Sciences, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.  10 p.

Parham, B.E.V. 1972. Plants of Samoa. New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Series No. 85, Wellington. 162 pp.

Parsons, W. T. and E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Smith, A. C. 1979-1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Six Volumes.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Thaman, R. R. 1999. Wedelia trilobata: Daisy invader of the Pacific Islands. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October, 1999.

Tolfts, Andrew. Cordia alliodora: the best laid plans… Aliens 6 (1997): 12-13.

Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii, revised edition with supplement by Wagner, W. L. and D. R. Herbst, pp. 1855-1918. University of Hawaii Press, 1919 pp. in 2 volumes.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Supplement 2. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 138 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 302 pp.

Waterhouse, D.F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 69 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. and K. R. Norris. 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 454 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1980. The vegetation of eastern Samoa. Allertonia 2:45-90.

Whistler, W. A. 1983a. Vegetation and flora of Aleipata Islands, Western Samoa. Pac. Sci. 37: 227-249.

Whistler, W. A.. 1983b. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A.. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992a. Flowers of the Pacific Island Seashore. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 154 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992b. Vegetation of Samoa and Tonga. Pac. Sci. 46(2):159-178.

Whistler, W. A.. 1995. Wayside Plants of the Islands. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 202 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1996. Samoan herbal medicine: ‘O la’au ma vai fofo o Samoa. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 116 pp.

Williamson, M. 1996. Biological Invasions. Chapman and Hall. 244 pp.

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