Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Report on invasive plant species in Samoa


Appendix 2. Other invasive plant species, mostly ruderal weeds or of agricultural concern

Table 1.   Species not seen or reported to be present in Samoa
Table 2.  
Introduced species that are invasive or potentially invasive in Samoa


Table 1. Species not seen or reported to be present in Samoa

Scientific Name

Common Names

Family

Habit

Abutilon grandifolium

English: hairy abutilon Malvaceae shrub

Abutilon indicum

English: albutilon, Indian abutilon, Indian mallow; Other: malbas, matbas (Guam-Chamorro) Malvaceae shrub

Abutilon theophrasti

velvetleaf Malvaceae herb
Acacia sinuata English: chikakai, piquant sappan, sappan, soap pod Fabaceae shrub
Acanthocereus tetragonus English: barbed-wire cactus, sword-pear, triangle cactus Cactaceae succulent

Acmella uliginosa

Other: mbotembotekoro (Fiji) Asteraceae herb

Aeschynomene indica

English: budda pea, curly-indigo, hard sola, Indian joint-vetch, kat sola, northern joint-vetch, sensitive jointed vetch, sensitive vetch Fabaceae herb
Agave americana English: American aloe, century plant; Other: maguey (Guam-Chamorro) Agavaceae herb
Alternanthera pungens English: khaki weed; Spanish: hierba del pollo Amaranthaceae herb
Amaranthus cruentus English: bush greens, purple amaranth, red amaranth, red shank; French: amarante étalée, queue de renard; Spanish: achita, bledo Amaranthaceae herb
Amaranthus dubius English: amaranth, spleen amaranth; French: brède de Malabar; Spanish: bledo, bledos malezas, pira; Other: toyala (Fiji); te uekeueke (Kiribati) Amaranthaceae herb
Ammannia auriculata Lythraceae herb
Anagallis arvensis English: bird's-eye, poor-man's weatherglass, red chickweed, scarlet pimpernel, shepherd's-weatherglass; French: buglosse des champs, mouron des champs; Spanish: murajes Primulaceae herb
Annona reticulata English: bullock's-heart, custard-apple; French: annone réticulée, coeur de boeuf; Spanish: anona corazón, corazón de buey, mamán; Other: uto ni bulamakau, chotka sarifa (Fiji) Annonaceae
Argemone mexicana English: Mexican prickly-poppy, Mexican poppy, prickly poppy, yellow thistle; French: argémone du Mexique; Spanish: adormidera espinosa, cardo santo, chicalote Papaveraceae herb
Bacopa procumbens Scrophulariaceae herb
Bixa orellana English: anatto, annato, annatto, arnatto, lipstick tree; French: atole, roucou, roucouyer; Spanish: achiote, achote, bija; Other: ‘uaeva, tāmuramura (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)), nggisa, nggesa, qesa (Fiji), ‘uaefa (French Polynesia (Tahiti), achiote (Guam—Chamorro); ‘alaea, ‘alaea la‘au, kumauna (Hawai‘i) Bixaceae shrub

Blechum pyramidata

English: green shrimp plant, blackweed (Samoa), Browne’s blechum; Other: ererion , fetinin namocels (Chuuk); yetbas babney (CNMI—Alamagan); lasaga, yetbas babui (CNMI—Saipan); ligakoka (Faraulap); yerbas babui (Guam); aurowra (Nomwin); vao uli (Samoa); atait (Satawal); gacel, malai, melai (Yap) Acanthaceae herb
Borreria verticillata Rubiaceae herb
Brachiaria eruciformis English: sweet signal grass Poaceae grass
Brassica juncea English: Chinese mustard, India mustard, Indian mustard, Oriental mustard; Spanish: mostaza india; Other: sausi (Fiji); mostaza (Guam-Chamorro) Brassicaceae herb
Brugmansia suaveolens Solanaceae shrub
Cajanus scarabaeoides English: peanut grass (Fiji), tropical clover (Fiji) Fabaceae vine
Caladium bicolor English: caladium, elephant's-ear, fancy-leaf caladium, heart-of-Jesus; Other: corazon de Santa Maria (Guam-Chamorro); kalo-kalakoa (Hawai'i) Araceae herb
Calotis lappulacea English: bur daisy, yellow daisy burr Asteraceae herb
Catharanthus roseus English: Cape periwinkle, Madagascar periwinkle, old-maid, rose periwinkle, rosy periwinkle; French: pervenche de Madagascar; Spanish: chatas, chula, pervinca de Madagascar; Other: tiare tāpau (Cook Islands), tiare mākaru (Cook Islands (Mangaia, Oneroa Village)); tiare mākurūta (Cook Islands (Ngaputou)); tiare kimo (Cook Islands (eastern Rarotonga)); tiare akiaki (northern Cook Islands); taramea, tiara taramea (Cook Islands (Aitutaki?)); kātini (Cook Islands (Mangaia, Tamarua Villiage)); kihapai (Hawai‘i)) Apocynaceae herb
Celosia argentea English: cockscomb Amaranthaceae
Centaurea melitensis English: Maltese cockspur, Maltese star thistle, Napa thistle, yellow star thistle; French: coix de Malte Asteraceae herb
Centaurium spicatum English: spiked centaury Gentianaceae fern
Chenopodium ambrosioides English: American wormseed, bluebush, Jerusalem tea, Mexican tea, Spanish-tea, wormseed; French: ambroisie du Mexique, herbe a puces; Spanish: apazote, aposote, epazote, hierba hormiguera, pazote, paico (Peru); Other: wai ni ukuwomu (Fiji); apasotes, alapasotes (Chamorro-Guam) Chenopodiaceae herb
Chenopodium murale English: Australian-spinach, green fat hen, nettle-leaf goosefoot, salt-green, sowbane Chenopodiaceae herb
Chloris divaricata English: slender chloris, star grass, star windmill grass Poaceae grass
Chloris gayana English: Rhodes grass; French: chloris, herbe de Rhodes; Spanish: grama de Rodas, pasto de Rodas Poaceae grass
Chloris virgata English: feather finger grass, feathered chloris, feathertop Rhodes grass, feathery Rhodes grass, oldland grass, sweet grass; Spanish: verdillo plumerito, zacate pluma Poaceae grass
Cleome gynandra English: African spider-flower, bastard-mustard, cat's-whiskers, spider wisp, wild spider flower; French: feuilles caya, mozambé; Spanish: acaya, mouzambi, volatí; Other: honohina, ‘ili‘ohu (Hawai‘i) Capparaceae herb
Cleome spinosa English: spiny spider-flower Capparaceae herb
Conyza aegyptiaca English: fleabane Asteraceae herb
Conyza canadensis English: butterweed, Canadian horseweed, Canadian fleabane, hogweed, horseweed Asteraceae herb
Corchorus olitorius English: Jew's mallow, jute, Nalta jute, tossa jute; French: corète potagère; Spanish: yute; Other: melokhia (Fiji) Tiliaceae herb
Corchorus trilocularis Tiliaceae herb
Coronopus didymus English: bittercress, swinecress, wart cress; Other: lesivao (Tonga) Brassicaceae herb
Cosmos caudatus English: cosmos Asteraceae herb
Cotula australis Engllish: bachelor's-button, carrotweed, common cotula, Australian brass buttons Asteraceae herb
Crotalaria linifolia English: narrow-leaved crotalaria Fabaceae herb
Crotalaria quinquefolia English: rattlepod; Other: mboa (Fiji); kaskabeles, cascanetas (Chamorro-Guam) Fabaceae herb
Crotalaria spectabilis English: rattlebox, showy crotalaria, showy rattlebox, showy rattlepod; French: crotalaire remarquable; Other: kolomona (Hawai‘i); ha'apai (Tonga) Fabaceae herb
Cuscuta cassytoides Cuscutaceae herb

Cyclospermum leptophyllum

English: fir-leaved celery, marsh parsley, slender celery

Apiaceae

herb

Cymbopogon refractus English: barbwire grass, soap grass; Other: ramga, othangithangi, thoyangiyangi (Fiji); aretu monoi, aretu noanoa (French Polynesia) Poaceae grass
Cyperus difformis English: dirty-Dora, one-arm sedge, rice sedge, small-flower umbrella-plant, variable flat sedge Cyperaceae sedge
Cyperus distans English: slender cyperus Cyperaceae sedge
Cyperus gracilis English: McCoy grass, slender sedge, whisker grass, whisker sedge; Other: mau‘u hunehune (Hawai‘i) Cyperaceae sedge
Cyperus haspan Cyperaceae sedge
Cyperus iria English: grasshopper's cyperus, rice flat sedge, umbrella sedge; Other: mou, mou hairi Cyperaceae sedge
Cyperus ligularis English: rocket sedge, swamp flatsedge Cyperaceae sedge
Dactylis glomerata English: barnyard grass, cocksfoot, cockspur, orchard grass; French: dactyle pelotonné, gramen pelotonné; Spanish: jopillo Poaceae grass
Datura ferox English: fierce thorn-apple, large thorn-apple, long-spine thorn-apple Solanaceae herb
Datura inoxia English: angel's-trumpet, downy thorn-apple, Indian-apple, sacred datura, thorn-apple; French: datura innocente; Spanish: cacaito Solanaceae herb
Datura metel English: datura, downy thorn-apple, Hindu datura, Hindu thorn-apple, hoary thorn-apple, horn-of-plenty, jimson-weed, purple thorn-apple; Spanish: burladora; Other: pūāve (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke, Ngaputoru?)); te uri ni tiana (Kiribati) Solanaceae herb
Datura stramonium English: datura, jimsonweed, moonflower, purple thorn-apple, thorn-apple; French: datura stramoine, herbe des taupes, pomme épineuse; Spanish: datura manzana, estramonio, tapa; Other: hurhur (Fiji); lā’au hānō, kīkānia, kīkānia haole (Hawai‘i) Solanaceae herb
Desmodium gangeticum Fabaceae herb
Digitaria eriantha English: common finger grass, digit grass, pangola grass, woolly finger grass; French: digitaria; Spanish: pangola, pasto pangola Poaceae grass
Digitaria sanguinalis English: crab finger grass, hairy crabgrass, large crabgrass, manne terrestre, panic sanguin, summer grass; Spanish: garrachuelo Poaceae grass
Diplotaxis muralis English: wall rocket Brassicaceae herb
Drymaria cordata English: drymaria, tropical chickweed, West Indian chickweed; French: mourron blanc; Other: pipili, pilipili (Hawai‘i) Caryophyllaceae herb
Elephantopus mollis English: elephantopus, elephant’s foot, false tobacco, tobacco weed; French: faux tabac; Other: tapuvae ‘erepani, tapuae ‘erepani, vaevae ‘erepani, tapua ‘erepani? (Cook Islands); tavako ni veikau, jangli tambaku (Fiji); papago' vaca, papago' halom tano, papago' baka, papago' halomtano' (Guam); lata hina, lau veveli (Tonga) Asteraceae herb
Emex australis English: doublegee, spiny emex, three-corner Jack Polygonaceae herb

Emex spinosa

Polygonaceae herb
Emilia coccinea English: Flora’s paintbrush, tasselflower Asteraceae herb
Emilia fosbergii Other: pualele (Hawai‘i—Ni‘ihau) Asteraceae herb
Eragrostis elongata English: clustered lovegrass (Australia) Poaceae grass
Eragrostis tenuifolia English: elastic grass, love grass Poaceae grass
Eragrostis tremula Poaceae grass
Eragrostis unioloides Poaceae grass
Eryngium foetidum English: false coriander, shadow-beni, stinkweed; French: azier la fièvre, chardon étoilé; Spanish: culantro Apiaceae herb
Euphorbia helioscopia English: sun spurge Euphorbiaceae herb
Euphorbia heterophylla English: Mexican fireplant, milkweed, painted euphorbia, painted spurge, paintedleaf, wild spurge; French: caca poule; Spanish: hierba de leche; Other: kaliko (Hawai‘i); te tarai (Kiribati) Euphorbiaceae herb
Euphorbia peplus English: petty spurge Euphorbiaceae herb
Eustachys petraea Poaceae grass
Fallopia convolvulus English: black bindweed, wild buckwheat Polygonaceae herb
Fimbristylis autumnalis English: slender fimbristylis Cyperaceae sedge
Foeniculum vulgare English: fennel; French: fenouil; Spanish: hinojo; Other: taretare tui-‘ei (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); pan mauri, sonf? (Fiji); anis hinoho (Guam—Chamorro); taletale (Niue) Apiaceae herb
Fuirena umbellata Other: yefen (Yap) Cyperaceae herb
Galinsoga parviflora English: gallant soldier, small-flower galinsoga, yellow weed Asteraceae herb
Gamochaeta pensylvanica English: Pennsylvania cudweed Asteraceae herb
Gamochaeta purpurea English: purple cudweed Asteraceae herb
Gloriosa superba English: climbing-lily, creeping-lily, flame-lily, glory-lily, gloriosa lily; Other: riri vavai-moa (Cook Islands ('Atiu)) Liliaceae herb
Gomphrena celosioides English: gomphrena weed Amaranthaceae herb
Gomphrena globosa English: bachelor's-button, bozu, globe amaranth, pearly everlasting; French: amarantine; Spanish: amarantina, amor seco, eterna; Other: pōkai kura (Cook Islands); buton agaga (Guam-Chamorro); lehua mau loa, lehua, lehua pepa, leihua (Hawai‘i); malila (Niue, Samoa) Amaranthaceae herb
Gomphrena serrata English: gamphrena (Guam) Amaranthaceae herb
Helianthus argophyllus English: silverleaf sunflower; Other: siola'a (Samoa) Asteraceae herb
Heliotropium indicum English: Indian heliotrope, turnsole; Spanish: alacrancillo; Other: berbena (Guam—Chamorro) Boraginaceae herb
Heliotropium procumbens Boraginaceae herb

Hypochoeris glabra

English: smooth cats-ear Asteraceae herb
Impatiens balsamina English: impatiens, balsam, garden balsam, rose balsam, spotted snapweed, touch-me-not; French: balsamine des jardins, impatience; Other: kamantigi (Guam), patiale (Samoa); polosomo (Tonga) Balsaminaceae succulent
Indigofera hirsuta English: hairy indigo, rough hairy indigo Fabaceae shrub
Indigofera linifolia Fabaceae herb
Indigofera spicata English: creeping indigo Fabaceae herb
Ipomoea cairica English: Cairo morning glory, coastal morning glory, ivy-leaved morning glory, railroad-creeper; Other: koali ‘ai, koali, koali ‘ai‘ai (Ni‘ihau), koali lau manamana, kowali, pa‘ali (Hawai‘i), sefifi sea (Niue) Convolvulaceae vine
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa English: bush morning glory, tree ipomoea Convolvulaceae vine
Ipomoea obscura Convolvulaceae vine
Ipomoea ochracea Convolvulaceae vine
Ipomoea purpurea English: common morning-glory, tall morning-glory Convolvulaceae herb
Ipomoea quamoclit English: Cupid's flower, cypress vine, cypressvine morning-glory, star of Bethlehem, star-glory, sweet-willy; French: cheveux de Venus, liane rouge; Spanish: regadero Convolvulaceae vine
Ipomoea triloba English: Aiea morning-glory, little bell; Other: fofgu-sabana (Guam-Chamorro); orech (Palau) Convolvulaceae vine
Isachne globosa Poaceae grass
Jasminum sambac English: Arabian jasmine; French: jasmin d'Arabie; Spanish: jazmín de Arabia; Other: pītate papa‘ā (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); sampagita (Guam—Chamorro) Oleaceae vine
Kyllinga melanosperma Cyperaceae sedge
Leontodon taraxacoides English: rough hawkbit Asteraceae herb
Lepidium ruderale English: peppergrass Brassicaceae herb
Lepidium sativum English: garden cress; French: cresson alénois; Spanish: berro de huerta Brassicaceae herb
Lepidium virginicum English: peppergrass, Virginia peppercress, Virginia pepperweed, wild peppercress; Spanish: cresón (Peru), mancuerno (Peru), escobilla (Venezuela); Other: naunau (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)) Brassicaceae herb
Leucas lavandulifolia Other: guma (Fiji) Lamiaceae herb
Limonia acidissima English: elephant-apple, Indian wood-apple, wood-apple Rutaceae tree
Lindernia antipoda Scrophulariaceae herb
Lindernia crustacea Other: moomai pere, haehaa, mataura (French Polynesia) Scrophulariaceae herb
Lindernia nummulariifolia Scrophulariaceae herb
Lygodium palmatum English: Hartford fern, American climbing fern, creeping fern, Windsor fern Schizaeaceae fern
Malva parviflora English: cheeseweed, Egyptian mallow, little mallow, small-flower mallow; French: mauve à petites fleurs, mauve d'Egypte; Spanish: malva Malvaceae herb
Marrubium vulgare English: common horehound, horehound, white horehound; French: marrube blanc, marrube vulgaire; Spanish: marrubio común Lamiaceae herb
Martynia annua English: devil's claw, iceplant, small-fruit devil's claw, tiger's-claw; French: Tête de mort Martyniaceae herb
Medicago lupulina English: black medic, hop-clover, nonesuch, yellow trefoil; French: lupuline, minette dorée; Spanish: mielga azafranada Fabaceae herb
Medicago polymorpha English: burr medic, California bur-clover, hairy medic, toothed bur-clover, toothed medic; French: luzerne hérissée; Spanish: carretón de amores, trébol de carretilla Fabaceae herb
Melochia corchorifolia Other: bundaya, bundahia, bundava (Fiji) Sterculiaceae herb
Merremia bracteata Other: ambui (Solomon Islands) Convolvulaceae vine
Merremia hirta Convolvulaceae herb
Merremia pacifica Other: veliyawa (Fiji) Convolvulaceae vine
Merremia umbellata English: yellow wood rose; Other: sovivi (Fiji) Convolvulaceae vine
Monochoria hastata English: arrow-leaf monochoria, hastate-leaf pondweed, monochoria Pontederiaceae aquatic herb
Monochoria vaginalis English: cordate monochoria, oval-leaf monochoria, oval-leaf-pondweed, pickerel weed; Other: mbekambekairanga (Fiji) Pontederiaceae aquatic herb
Nelumbo nucifera English: East Indian lotus, lotus, lotusroot, oriental lotus, sacred lotus; French: fève d'Egypte, lotus indien, lotus sacré; Spanish: loto sagrado, rosa del Nilo Nelumbonaceae aquatic herb
Nicandra physalodes English: apple of Peru, shooflyplant; French: nicandra; Spanish: capulí cimarró Solanaceae herb
Oldenlandia corymbosa Rubiaceae herb
Oldenlandia pumila Rubiaceae herb
Opuntia dillenii English: dildo, Eltham indian fig, sweet prickly-pear Cactaceae cactus
Opuntia stricta English: erect prickly-pear, southern spineless cactus Cactaceae cactus
Orthosiphon aristatus English: cat’s whiskers; Other: emadecharebub (Palau), kumi ni pusi (Fiji), ‘ava pusi (Samoa), kava ‘i pusi (Tonga) Lamiaceae herb
Ottelia ovalifolia English: swamp lily (Australia) Hydrocharitaceae aquatic herb
Oxalis debilis English: pink wood-sorrel, lilac oxalis; Other: ‘ihi pehu (Hawai‘i), ‘ii (Samoa) Oxalidaceae herb

Panicum decompositum

English: Australian millet, umbrella grass Poaceae grass
Parthenium hysterophorus English: bitterweed, carrot grass, false ragweed, feverfew, parthenium weed, ragweed parthenium, whitetop, Santa Maria Asteraceae herb
Paspalum setaceum Poaceae grass
Passiflora subpeltata English: white passionflower; Spanish: granadina Passifloraceae vine
Persicaria glabra Other: kāmole (Hawai‘i) Polygonaceae
Phaseolus lunatus English: lima bean, butter bean, Burma bean, haricot bean, Madagascar bean, sieva bean, sugar bean; French: haricot de Lima, haricot du Cap, pois du Cap; Spanish: frijol de luna, haba lima, judía de Lima, pallar; Other: sem (Fiji), piini ‘ae puaka (Tonga) Fabaceae herb
Phyla nodiflora English: fogfruit, lippia, phyla Verbenaceae herb
Phyllanthus tenellus English: long-stalk phyllanthus, Mascarene Island leaf-flower Euphorbiaceae herb
Phytolacca octandra Engish: pokeweed, Southern pokeberry, ink weed (Australia) Phytolaccaceae shrub
Piriqueta racemosa Turneraceae herb
Plantago debilis Plantaginaceae herb
Polygonum dichotomum Polygonaceae herb
Polygonum minus English: smartweed Polygonaceae herb
Rhynchosia minima English: rhynchosia; Other: pine likku, pine Liku (Niue) Fabaceae herb
Rottboellia cochinchinensis English: guinea-fowl grass, itchgrass, Kelly grass, kokoma grass, Raoul grass Poaceae grass
Rumex brownii English: brown dock, hooked dock, slender dock, swamp dock Polygonaceae herb
Rumex crispus English: curled dock, curly dock, sour dock, yellow dock Polygonaceae herb
Rumex pulcher English: fiddle dock Polygonaceae herb
Salvia coccinea English: red salvia, red sage, scarlet sage, Texas sage, tropical sage, wild salvia (Fiji); Other: titānia (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); līlīlehua (Hawai‘i); momili (Niue); te'ekosi (Tonga) Lamiaceae herb
Scoparia dulcis English: scoparia, sweet broom; Spanish: escobilla Scrophulariaceae herb
Senecio quadridentatus English: cotton fireweed Asteraceae herb
Senna bicapsularis English: Christmasbush, moneybush, rambling cassia Fabaceae shrub
Senna hirsuta English: stinking cassia (Fiji) Fabaceae shrub
Senna multiglandulosa Fabaceae shrub
Sesbania cannabina English: canicha, dhaincha, dhunchi, sesbania pea; French: sesbane chanvré Fabaceae shrub
Setaria parviflora English: knotroot bristle grass, knotroot foxtail, perennial foxtail, slender pigeon grass, yellow foxtail; Other: mau‘u Kaleponi (Hawai‘i) Poaceae grass
Sida cordifolia English: flannelweed, heart-leaf sida Malvaceae shrub
Sida linifolia Malvaceae herb
Sida spinosa English: prickly sida, spiny sida Malvaceae herb
Sida urens Malvaceae shrub
Sisymbrium erysimoides English: smooth mustard Brassicaceae herb
Sisyrinchium micranthum English: scourweed; Other: wa ma ndrala (Fiji) Iridaceae herb
Solanum americanum English: American nightshade, black nightshade, glossy nightshade; French: morelle noire; Other: poroporo (Cook Islands); mboro, mboro laukana, mboro ni veiwere, mboro ni yaloka ni ngata, mburosousou ni vavalangi, malhome, thevuthevu (Fiji); oupoo (French Polynesia (Marquesas)); pōpolo, ‘olohua, polopolo (Hawai‘i); pōpolohua (Hawai‘i (Ni‘ihau)); magalo, polo (Samoa); polo kai (Tonga) Solanaceae herb
Solanum mammosum English: nipple fruit; French: pomme zombi Solanaceae shrub
Soliva anthemifolia English: dwarf jojo Asteraceae herb
Sonchus oleraceus English: annual sow thistle, common sow thistle, hare's-lettuce, milk thistle, sow thistle; Spanish: cerraja; Other: pū‘ā (Cook Islands); pualele (Hawai‘i), pupe lele, puha, puna (Niue); longolongo'uha (Tonga) Asteraceae herb
Sorghum arundinaceum English: common wild sorghum, kavirondo sorghum (Fiji) Poaceae grass
Sorghum bicolor English: Sudan grass; French: sorgho du Soudan, sorgho menu; Other: tarapī (Cook Islands), kola (Tonga) Poaceae grass
Spermacoce ernstii Rubiaceae herb?
Spermacoce ocymoides English: purple-leaved button weed Rubiaceae herb
Sphenoclea zeylanica Sphenocleaceae. herb
Sporobolus pyramidatus Poaceae grass
Stachys arvensis English: staggerweed Lamiaceae herb
Stapelia gigantea English: carrion flower, starfish flower, zulu-giant, giant toad plant Asclepiadaceae succulent
Taraxacum officinale English: common dandelion, dandelion, lion's-tooth; French: dent de lion, pissenlit vulgaire; Spanish: achicoria amarga, amargón, diente de león; Other: laulele, lauhele (Hawai‘i) Asteraceae herb
Tephrosia noctiflora Fabaceae herb
Teucrium vesicarium Lamiaceae herb
Themeda gigantea English: ulla Poaceae grass
Themeda quadrivalvis English: grader grass, habana grass, kangaroo grass; French: herbe kangourou Poaceae grass

Tillandsia usneoides

English: Spanish moss, old man's beard, grandfather’s whiskers, air plant; French: cheveaux du roi, barbe grise, fille de l'air Bromeliaceae bromeliad
Trichodesma zeylanicum English: camel bush Boraginaceae herb
Urochloa humidicola English: creeping signal grass, koronivia grass Poaceae grass
Verbena bonariensis English: purpletop, South American vervain, tall verbena; Other: sekara, vunikuta (Fiji), momili vao (Niue) Verbenaceae herb
Verbena litoralis Other: ōwī, oī (Hawai‘i); ha‘uōwī, ha‘uōwī (Hawai‘i-Ni‘ihau) Verbenaceae herb
Verbena rigida English: veined verbena Verbenaceae herb
Vicia sativa ssp. nigra English: black-pod vetch, common vetch, narrow-leaf vetch, spring vetch; Spanish: averijilla Fabaceae herb
Vigna radiata English: green gram, golden gram, mung, mung bean Fabaceae herb
Xanthium strumarium English: Australian burr (Cook Islands), California-bur, cocklebur, noogoora burr; Other: ovuka, nggatima ni vavalangi, qatima ni vavalagi (Fiji), kikania (Hawai‘i) Asteraceae herb
Youngia japonica English: oriental hawksbeard; Other: mosita ni Viti (Fiji) Asteraceae herb
Ziziphus jujuba English: Chinese jujube, Chinese date, Chinese plum, common jujube; French: jujubier commun; Spanish: azufaifo; Other: ber (Fiji) Rhamnaceae tree

Sources: Swarbrick (1997), Waterhouse (1997) and Whistler (1988)

Table 2. Species seen or reported to be present in Samoa

Scientific Name

Common Names

Family

Habit

Acalypha alopecuroides

English: foxtail copperleaf

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Acalypha indica

English: copperleaf, Indian-nettle, ricinela; Other: hierba del cancer (Guam-Chamorro)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Acalypha lanceolata

Other: puapua (Cook Islands (Miti'aro)); ongo ongo (Niue); ogo ogo (Samoa); hongohongo (Tonga

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Achyranthes aspera

English: chaff-flower, devil's horsewhip; prickly chaff-flower; Other: piripiri (Cook Islands); kōpū varu (Cook Islands (‘Atiu, Ma‘uke)); tumu ‘enua (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); sono ivi (Fiji); aerofai (French Polynesia (Tahiti));chichitun, lasogado, lasocata (Guam-Chamorro); talamoa fisi (Niue); louch beluu, louch el beluu (Palau); lautafifi (Samoa); tamatama (Samoa, Tonga)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Ageratum conyzoides

English: billygoat-weed, chick week, goatweed, whiteweed; French: azier françois, baume, bouton; Spanish: chuva; Other: botebotekoro, mata mothemothe, mbotembotekoro, sogovanua, songovanua (Fiji); mumutung (Guam-Chamorro), maire vaihi (French Polynesia); maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula (Hawai‘i); sekose sea (Niue); ngmak (Palau); a‘amia, tae‘oti (Samoa); te‘ehosi (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Alternanthera sessilis

English: joyweed, sessile joyweed; Other: mata kura (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); geluti (Fiji); okula beluulechad (Palau); fisi‘i‘anoa (Tonga)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Alysicarpus vaginalis

English: alyce-clover, buffalo-clover, one-leaf-clover; French: alysicarpus; Spanish: maní cimarrón

Fabaceae

herb

Amaranthus blitum

English: amaranth, livid amaranth, slender amaranth; French: amarante livide; Spanish: bledo; Other: tupu'a (Tonga)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Amaranthus interruptus

English: amaranth

Amaranthaceae

herb

Amaranthus spinosus

English: edlebur, needle burr, spiny amaranth, thorny pigweed; French: épinard cochon, épinard malabre; Spanish: bledo espinoso, espinaca de Malabar; Other: kulites, kuletes (Guam—Chamorro); pakai kuku (Hawai‘i)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Amaranthus viridis

English: green amaranth, pigweed, slender amaranth; French: amarante verte; Spanish: bledo; Other: va‘ine ‘ara (Cook Islands); chauriya, chauraiya, choroiya, ndriti, ngasau ni vuaka, tumua (Fiji); kuletes apaka (Guam—Chamorro); pakai, ‘aheahea, pakaikai, pakapakai (Hawai‘i); te moota (Kiribati); ‘au tasi (Samoa); spinach (Solomon Islands); tupu‘a (Tonga)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Annona muricata

English: soursop, prickly custard apple; French: corossolier, cacheimantier épineux, cachiman épineux, corossol épineux; Other: syasyap (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); kātara‘apa (Cook Islands); kātara‘apa papa‘ā (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); naponapo taratara (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); saasaf, sasaf (Chuuk); tapotapo papaa (French Polynesia); laguana, laguaná, laguanaha, laguanaba, labuanaha (Guam); sosap (Kosrae); jojaab (Marshall Islands); talapo fotofoto (Niue); sausab (Palau); sei, sae, truka shai (Pohnpei); sasalapa (Samoa); ‘apele ‘initia (Tonga); sausau (Yap)

Annonaceae

tree

Asclepias curassavica

English: bastard ipecac, blood flower, bloodflower milkweed, butterfly weed, false ipecac, milkweed; French: herbe a gendarme, ipéca sauvage; Spanish: algodoncillo, corcalito, flor de sangre, yuquillo; Other: tirika, tiare moko (Cook Islands); false ipiciachuana, wathiwathi, vu ni lolia, madhar (Fiji); asuncion (Guam-Chamorro); laulele, lauhele, nu‘umela, pua ‘anuhe (Hawai‘i); pepetoa, vaomumu, vao fualele (Samoa); lou pepe, tu‘ulapepe (Tonga)

Asclepiadaceae

herb

Axonopus compressus

English: blanket grass, carpetgrass; Other: kambutu ni vavalangi (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Axonopus fissifolius

English: caratao grass, narrow-leaved carpetgrass

Poaceae

grass

Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum

English: bedding begonia, perpetual begonia, wax begonia; French: bégonia semperflorens; Spanish: perpetua

Begoniaceae

herb

Bidens pilosa

English: beggar’s tick, Spanish needle, cobbler's pegs; French: piquants noirs, bident hérissé, herbe d'aiguille, herbe villebague (Mauritius); Other: piripiri kerekere (Cook Islands); piripiri (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)); nīroa (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); kamika tuarongo (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); tae puaka (Futuna); batimadramadra, mbatimandramandra, mbatikalawau, matakaro, matua kamate (Fiji); ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, nehe (Hawai'i); kofe tonga, kofetoga (Niue); fisi'uli (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Breynia disticha

English: snowbush, snowbush breynia, sweetpea bush, foliage-flower; Other: maemae (Cook Islands (Miti‘aro))

Euphorbiaceae

shrub

Cananga odorata

English: perfume tree; French: canang odorant; Other: moso‘oi (American Samoa and Samoa); pwanang, pwuur, pwalang (Chuuk); ylang-ylang, lengileng; (CNMI); moto‘oi, mata‘oi, mato‘oi (Cook Islands, Niue, Tahiti); makasoi, makosoi, makusui, mokohoi, mokosoi (Fiji); moto‘i (French Polynesia); ilang-ilang, alang-ilang (Guam, CNMI, Philippines); lanalana (Hawai‘i); ilanlang, ilahnglahng (Kosrae); ilanilan, ilañlañ (Marshall Islands); motoi (Niue); chiráng, irang (Palau); pur-n-wai, pwurenwai, sair-n-wai, seirin wai, seir en wai (Pohnpei); mohoki, mohokoi (Tonga)

Annonaceae

tree

Centella asiatica

English: Asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort, marsh pennywort, pennyweed, sheep-rot, thankuni; French: écuelle d'eau, fausse violette; Spanish: hierba de clavo, sombrerito; Other: kapukapu (Cook Islands); totondro, totono, tatandra (Fiji); pohe kula (Hawai‘i); tonu (Niue); tono (Niue, Tonga); elisichur, elsichur (Palau); togo (Samoa)

Apiaceae

herb

Chamaesyce hirta

English: asthma plant, garden spurge, pill-bearing spurge, hairy spurge, sneeze weed (Solomon Islands); French: herbe a dysenterie, herbe a verrues; Other: totototo titā (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); ndeniose, ndeniosi, samunggawe, ovuka, ovoku (Fiji); eaea, raau topau (French Polynesia); golondrina (Guam-Chamorro); koko kahiki (Hawai‘i); toto tane (Niue); udall (Palau); la‘au fai moti (Samoa); sakisi (Tonga)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Chamaesyce hypericifolia

English: beach spurge, graceful spurge; Other: ufi tamaiti? (Samoa)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Chamaesyce prostrata

English: creeping splurge, prostrate spurge, red caustic creeper; Other: bodulagas-chaca (Chamorro-Guam); te tarai (Kiribati); toto fifine, toto fefine? (Niue); laulili'i (Samoa); papati (French Polynesia (Society Islands))

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Chamaesyce thymifolia

English: red caustic creeper, thyme-leafed spurge

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Cleome viscosa

English: tickweed, spider flower; Other: monggos-paluma, mongos-paloma (Chamorro-Guam)

Capparaceae

herb

Coix lacryma-jobi

English: adlay, adlay millet, Job's-tears; French: larmes de Job; Spanish: lágrimas de Job, lágrimas de San Pedro; Other: poepoe (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)), sila (Fiji); pū‘ohe‘ohe, kūkaekōlea, ‘ohe‘ohe, pūpū kōlea (Hawai‘i); tangatanga (Niue); demairuuch, tauiir (Palau); sanasana, sagasaga (Samoa); hana (Tonga)

Poaceae

grass

Commelina benghalensis

English: Benghal dayflower, dayflower, hairy wandering Jew, wandering Jew; Other: hairy honohono (Hawai‘i); mau'u Tonga (Samoa); kanini, kaningi, musie matala pulu (Tonga)

Commelinaceae

herb

Conyza bonariensis

English: flax-leaf fleabane, hairy fleabane, hairy horseweed, wavy-leaf fleabane; Other: lani wela (Hawai‘i)

Asteraceae

herb

Conyza sumatrensis

English: broadleaf fleabane, tall fleabane; Other: wavuwavu, tho ni vavalangi, tho ni papalangi, tumbua, thovuka, matakaro (Fiji); pakaka (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Crassocephalum crepidoides

English: thickhead, fireweed, redflower ragleaf; Other: fua lele, pualele (American Samoa and Samoa); maraburubo (Solomon Islands); fisi puna (Tonga); se vuka (Fiji)

Asteraceae

herb

Crotalaria incana

English: fuzzy rattlepod, woolly rattlepod; Other: kūkaehoki, kolomona (Hawai‘i); kuroteraria (Palau)

Fabaceae

shrub

Crotalaria pallida

English: salts rattlebox, smooth crotalaria, smooth rattlebox, smooth rattlepod, streaked rattlepod, striped crotalaria; French: crotalaire mucronée; Other: maniva (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); nggiringgiri, kaumothe, toela, pini (Fiji); pikakani, kolomona (Hawai‘i); pine kotalelia (Niue); pi'isi (Tonga)

Fabaceae

shrub

Crotalaria retusa

English: devil-bean, wedge-leaf crotalaria, wedge-leaf rattlepod; Spanish: cascabel fétido; Other: piini? (Tonga)

Fabaceae

herb

Crotalaria verrucosa

English: blue-flower rattlepod, tooth-leaf rattlepod

Fabaceae

herb

Cuphea carthagenensis

English: Columbian cuphea, Colombian waxweed, tarweed; Other: lasahia, kerisi (Fiji); laau fau moti (Samoa)

Lythraceae

herb

Cyathula prostrata

English: cyathula; Other: mata kura (Cook Islands (Miti'aro?); tolomo'unga (Tonga)

Amaranthaceae

herb

Cyperus compressus

English: flat sedge; Other: pakopako (Tonga)

Cyperaceae

sedge

Cyperus cyperinus

English: long-headed sedge; Other: mue mue, mou upo tutu (French Polynesia)

Cyperaceae

sedge

Cyperus cyperoides

Other: pako (Niue); tuise (Samoa); pako pako (Tonga)

Cyperaceae

sedge

Cyperus pilosus

Cyperaceae

sedge

Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum

English: long-leaf cyrtococcum grass; Other: thovatu, osalasala (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Cyrtococcum patens

Poaceae

grass

Cyrtococcum trigonum

English: short-leaf cyrtococcum grass

Poaceae

grass

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

English: beach wiregrass, button grass, coast button grass, comb fringe grass, crowfoot grass, duck grass, finger comb grass

Poaceae

grass

Delonix regia

English:  flame tree, flamboyant, poinciana; French:  pacayer; Spanish:  flamboyan; Other: pātai (Cook Islands (Rarotonga, Mangaia, Aitutaki, Penrhyn, Manihiki, Rakahanga)); raākau taāmarumaru, taāmarumaru, (Cook Islands (Atiu)); pukakai (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); puū piī (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); marumaru (Cook Islands (Miti‘aro)); fayarbaw, nfayarbaw (CNMI–Carolinian); sekoula (Fiji); pakai, puke (Tahiti, French Polynesia); arbol del fuego, atbot, atbot det fuegu, atbut (Guam and CNMI–Chamorro); ‘ohai ‘ula (Hawai‘i); te tua (Kiribati); pine (Niue); nangiosákura, nangiosikura, nangyo (Palau); pilampwoia weitahta (Pohnpei); tamaligi (Samoa); ‘ohai (Tonga); fua tausaga (Tuvalu); sakuranirow (Yap)

Fabaceae

tree

Desmodium heterophyllum

English: hetero, Spanish clover; Other: senivakathengu, wakutu (Fiji)

Fabaceae

herb

Desmodium incanum

English: kaimi clover, Spanish clover; Other: ngātoro (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); ka‘imi (Hawai‘i)

Fabaceae

shrub

Desmodium scorpiurus

Fabaceae

herb

Desmodium triflorum

English: creeping tick trefoil, three-flower beggarweed, tropical trefoil; Spanish: hierba cuartillo; Other: olmud (Palau); konikoni, vakathengu (Fiji); kihikihi (Tonga)

Fabaceae

herb

Desmodium uncinatum

English: silverleaf desmodium, Spanish clover, Spanish tick-clover; Spanish: desmodio plateado, pega pega

Fabaceae

herb

Dichanthium annulatum

English: Angleton grass, bluestem, Diaz bluestem, Hindi grass, Kleberg bluestem, marvel grass, sheda grass, vunda blue grass (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Digitaria bicornis

English: southern crabgrass

Poaceae

grass

Digitaria fuscescens

English Y grass; Other: creeping kūkaepua‘a (Hawai‘i)

Poaceae

grass

Digitaria horizontalis

Poaceae

grass

Dioscorea bulbifera

English: aerial yam, air-potato, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam; French: igname bulbifère, pousse en l'air; Spanish: ñame de gunda, papa voladora; Other: kaile, kaile ndranu, kaile nganga, kaile manu, sarau (Fiji); magnaheugo (Chamorro-Guam); hoi (Hawai‘i, Niue, Tonga); pi‘oi (Hawai‘i (Kaua‘i)), belloi (Palau); soi (Samoa, Wallis and Futuna); kwai kwasi (Solomon Islands)

Dioscoreaceae

vine

Duranta erecta

English: duranta, golden dewdrop, pigeon-berry, sky-flower; Other: ‘olive (Tonga)

Verbenaceae

shrub

Echinochloa colona

English: awnless barnyard grass (Australia), corn panic grass, Deccan grass, jungle ricegrass, jungle rice, millet-rice, pigeon millet (Samoa), shama millet; French: blé du Dekkan; Spanish: pasto del arroz; Other: chaguan-agaga (Chamorro – Guam); uaum (Palau); sefa (Samoa); muhuku'apopoa, matala'ulie (Tonga); riz de jungle (Vanuatu)

Poaceae

grass

Echinochloa stagnina

English: barnyard grass, burgu grass, hippo grass, long-awn water grass; Other: bangara gaddi (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Eclipta prostrata

English: eclipta, false daisy, swamp daisy, white eclipta; French: éclipte blanche; Spanish: hierba de tajo, yerba de tajo; Other: miri mapua (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); tamudu, tamudi, tamandu, tumandu, tumundi, tholulu, colulu (Fiji); deberebelela tengadidik (Palau)

Asteraceae

herb

Eleocharis dulcis

English: Chinese water-chestnut, ground-chestnut, waternut; French: châtaigne d'eau; Spanish: cabezas de negrito, nuez china; Other: kuta, sasa, taria (Fiji); uchaga-lane (Guam-Chamorro); kerdikes (Palau); utu utu (Samoa); ngwaro (Solomon Islands)

Cyperaceae

sedge

Eleutheranthera ruderalis

Other: pakaka (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Emilia sonchifolia

English: Cupid's shaving-brush, emilia, Flora's paint brush, purple sow thistle, sow thistle; French: émilie; Other: pupu lele (Niue); pualele (Niue, Samoa); fua lele, fua lele lili‘i (Samoa); longlongo‘uha (Tonga))

Asteraceae

herb

Eragrostis amabilis

English: Bug's egg grass, Japanese love grass, love grass (Fiji, Guam), female grass (Kiribati); Other: te uteute naine (Kiribati), ouemoket (Palau)

Poaceae

grass

Eragrostis pilosa

English: hairy love grass, Indian love grass, soft lovegrass; French: pâturin poilu; Spanish: barba de indio

Poaceae

grass

Erechtites valerianifolia

English: Brazilian fireweed, fireweed, fireweed daisy, Ceylon thistle; Other: co vuka, thovuka (Fiji); fua lele, pua lele (Samoa); fisi puna (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Eriochloa procera

Poaceae

grass

Euphorbia cyathophora

English: dwarf poinsettia, fire-on-the-mountain, Mexican fire plant, painted spurge, wild poinsettia; Other: te kabekan (Kiribati); deriba (Nauru)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Fimbristylis littoralis

English: grass-like fimbristylis, lesser fimbristylis; Spanish: barba de fraile; Other: kerngimes, kederang (Palau)

Cyperaceae

sedge

Fleurya interrupta

Other: salato, salato ni koro, salato vutivali (Fiji); hongohongo (Niue, Tonga); ongo ongo (Niue, Samoa); ogoogo (Samoa); akoako fuluma (Solomon Islands); nanggalat (Vanuatu); mangeo (Wallis and Futuna)

Urticaceae

herb

Glycine tabacina

Fabaceae

herb

Hemigraphis reptans

Acanthaceae

herb

Impatiens walleriana

English: garden impatiens, balsam, busy lizzy, bizzy-lizzie, patient lucy; sultan’s flower, Japanese balsam (Fiji)

Balsaminaceae

succulent

Imperata conferta

English: plume grass; Other: ngi (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Ipomoea alba

English: moonflower; Other: alaihai-tasi (Guam-Chamorro); koali pehu (Hawai‘i), fue sina, fue to (Samoa)

Convolvulaceae

vine

Ischaemum indicum

English: batiki blue grass (Fiji), mbatiki blue grass (Fiji), mbalanga grass (Fiji)

Poaceae

grass

Justicia betonica

English: white shrimp plant, squirrel's tail

Acanthaceae

herb

Justicia procumbens

Acanthaceae

herb

Lobelia zeylanica

English: white root; Other: vononiwai (Fiji)

Campanulaceae

herb

Ludwigia hyssopifolia

Other: nai quisa (Fiji), charguan asusuyan, titimo (Guam-Chamorro)

Onagraceae

herb

Ludwigia octovalvis

English: willow primrose, false primrose, yellow willow herb; French: faux primerose; Other: tiēmu (Cook Islands); pītōrea (Cook Islands (Ngaputoru and Mangaia), French Polynesia (leeward Society Islands); kāmole, alohalua, kāmole lau li‘i, kāmole lau nui (Hawai‘i); te mam (Kiribati); erur (Palau); laavai, mautofu vao, fua samasama (Samoa)

Onagraceae

herb

Luffa aegyptiaca

English: dishrag gourd, loofah, rag gourd, smooth loofah, sponge gourd, vegetable sponge; French: courge torchon, pétole; Spanish: estropajo, paste; Other: pō‘ue (Cook Islands); mafai (Tonga)

Cucurbitaceae

vine

Lycopersicon esculentum

English: tomato, wild tomato; French: tomate sauvage (New Caledonia); Spanish: tomate, tomatera; Other: tōmāti (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)); tomate (Guam—Chamorro)

Solanaceae

herb

Malvastrum coromandelianum

English: false mallow, prickly malvastrum; Other: purūmu (Cook Islands); te‘ehosi, te‘ehoosi (Tonga)

Malvaceae

herb

Momordica charantia

English: balsam-apple, bitter-melon, bitter gourd, balsam pear, squirting cucumber, cerasee, peria; French: momordique, margose (Réunion, Mauritius Islands), margose amère, momordique amère, concombre amer, concombre africain; Spanish: achoccha silvestre; Other: pōkutekute rengarenga (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); kerala (Fiji); almagosa, atmagosu (Guam); atmagoso (Guam, CNMI); markoso, markosong (Palau); meleni 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia (Tonga)

Cucurbitaceae

vine

Moringa oleifera

English: horseradish tree, drumstick tree, ben nut, morango; French: ben ailée, moringa ailée, pois quénique; Other: malungkai, marronggai, marungai, marunggai, malungay, katdes (Guam); sajina (Fiji); malungkai (Palau)

Moringaceae

tree

Oplismenus hirtellus

English: basket grass, woods grass; Other: honohono kukui, honohono, honohono maoli (Hawai‘i)

Poaceae

grass

Opuntia sp.

English: drooping tree pear, prickly pear; Other: lauaufai va (Samoa)

Cactaceae

cactus

Oxalis barrelieri

Other: a'aa'a'ii, vine (Samoa)

Oxalidaceae

herb

Paspalum dilatatum

English: paspalum, dallis grass, water grass; French: paspalum dilaté, herbe sirop, herbe de miel, herbe de dallis, millet bâtard; Other: hiku nua (Niue)

Poaceae

grass

Pennisetum glaucum

English: bajra, bulrush millet, burr bristle grass, cat’s tail grass, cattail millet, mongoose tail grass (Fiji), pearl millet, yellow bristle grass, yellow foxtail; French: millet à chandelles, millet perle; Spanish: mijo negro

Poaceae

grass

Peperomia pellucida

Other: potpopot, podpod-lahi (Guam-Chamorro); rtertiil (Palau)

Piperaceae

herb

Persea americana

English: avocado, alligator pear; French: l’avocat; Spanish: aguacate; Other: ‘āpuka, ‘āpoka (Cook Islands); pea (Fiji); avoka (Niue, Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga); ‘āvōta (Cook Islands (Ngaputoru)); bata (Palau); alageta (Chamorro, Guam)

Lauraceae

tree

Phyllanthus amarus

Other: moemoe (Cook Islands); moemoe uouo (French Polynesia); maigo-lalo (Guam-Chamorro); te kaimatu (Kiribati); ukalla ruchel (Palau)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Phyllanthus debilis

Other: maigo-lalo? (Guam—Chamorro)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Phyllanthus urinaria

Other: kai moku, se mbulumbulu, tho mokumoku (Fiji)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Phyllanthus virgatus

English: seed-under-leaf (Samoa); Other: moemoe 'enua? (Cook Islands); tei ni niu (Fiji); 'avasa (Samoa)

Euphorbiaceae

herb

Physalis angulata

English: annual ground cherry, bladder cherry (Solomon Islands), wild cape gooseberry (Fiji); Other: tūpera tāmaru-ariki (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); kospeli, mbotembote yandra, mburasu, mborosousou, mborosousou ni vavalangi, mokoai, thevuthevu (Fiji); tamanufairi, tamaru ha‘ari (French Polynesia); tomate chaca (Guam-Chamorro); te baraki (Kiribati); watomo (Nauru); manini (Niue); bubeubedul (Palau); vivao (Samoa); polopa (Tonga)

Solanaceae

herb

Physalis peruviana

English: Cape gooseberry, goldenberry, gooseberry-tomato, Peruvian ground-cherry, Peruvian-cherry; French: capuli, coqueret du Peru, groseiller du cap; Spanish: alquequenje, capulí, uvilla (Ecuador); Other: tūpera (Cook Islands); botebote yadra, mbotembote yandra, kospeli, maulaqua, maulanggua, tukiyadra, tukiyandra (Fiji); tupere (French Polynesia), pohā, pa‘ina (Hawai‘i); manini (Niue); ku‘usi (Tonga)

Solanaceae

shrub

Pilea microphylla

English: artillery plant, gunpowder plant, pistol plant, rockweed, Samoan fern (Samoa); Other: kiona topa (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)), pikimaka (Niue), tamole (Samoa)

Urticaceae

herb

Plantago lanceolata

English: buckhorn, buckhorn plantain, English plantain, narrow-leaved plantain, plantain (Vanuatu), ribgrass, ribwort plantain; French: petit plantain; Spanish: llantén menor; Other: filo, filohako (Tonga)

Plantaginaceae

herb

Plantago major

English: broadleaf plantain, common plantain, greater plantain; French: grand plantain, plantain majeur; Spanish: llantén, llantén común, llantén major; Other: laukahi, kūhēkili (Hawai‘i); filo, filomatolu (Tonga)

Plantaginaceae

herb

Polygala paniculata

English: island snake-root; Other: ai roi ni turaga, teketekeniulumatua, tekiteki ni ulumatua, senikuila, mindi, tamoli (Fiji); keskus ra mekesong (Palau); namupululola, pulunamulole (Samoa)

Polygalaceae

herb

Portulaca oleracea

English: pigweed, purslane; French: pourpier; Spanish: verdolaga; Other: pōkea papa‘ā (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tuamotus)); katuri (Cook Islands (Penrhyn)); ongoongo (Cook Islands (Pukapuka)); taukuku ni vuaka, taukuka ni vuaka, amlonia (Fiji); aturi (French Polynesia (Tahiti); botdolagas, bodulagas, donkulu (Guam-Chamorro); ‘ākulikuli kula, ‘ākulikuli lau li‘i, ‘ihi (Hawai‘i); te boi (Kirbati); kamole (Niue); pokea (Niue, French Polynesia (Marquesas, Tuamotu)); tamole (Samoa, Tonga)

Portulacaceae

herb

Pseudelephantopus spicatus

English: false elephant foot, tobacco weed (Vanuatu), Yasawa tobacco weed (Fiji); French: faux tabac des Samoa; Spanish: hierba de caballo (Columbia); Other: vao elefane, vao maligi, vao malini (Samoa)

Asteraceae

herb

Pueraria montana var. lobata

English: kudzu, Japanese arrowroot; Other: aka (American Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Wallis and Futuna); a‘a (American Samoa and Samoa); yaka , wa yaka, nggariaka (Fiji); akataha, fue‘aepuaka (Tonga); deday (Yap); acha, nepalem

Fabaceae

vine

Rubella tuberosa

English: large bell-flower (Samoa); Other: vaouliuli lautele (Samoa)

Acanthaceae

herb

Salvia occidentalis

English: blue sage, West Indian sage; Other: mauku 'aunga-kino (Cook Islands (Ma'uke)); pupu elo, sealu (Niue); te'ekosi totolo (Tonga)

Lamiaceae

herb

Senna occidentalis

English: antbush, coffee senna; French: bentamaré, café bâtard, casse-puante, dartrier; Spanish: bricho, brusca, frijolillo, guanina; Other: kau mothe, pini (Fiji); amot-tumaga karabao, mumutun-sable (Guam-Chamorro); ‘auko‘i, ‘au‘auko‘i, mikipalaoa, pī hohono (Hawai‘i); te atia (Kiribati); tan brava (Nauru); korriu (Palau); te‘epulu (Tonga)

Fabaceae

shrub

Senna sophera

Other: matui (Tonga)

Fabaceae

herb

Setaria barbata

English: bristly foxtail grass

Poaceae

grass

Setaria italica

English: foxtail millet, German millet, Hungarian millet, Italian millet; French: millet d'Italie, millet des oiseaux, petit mil, sétaire-d'Italie; Spanish: mijo de Italia, mijo menor, moha, panizo

Poaceae

grass

Sida acuta

English: broom weed, Paddy’s lucerne, southern sida, spiny-head sida, spiny sida; French: herbe à balais, herbe à paniers; Spanish: escoba blanca, escobilla; Other: purūmu (Cook Islands); deni vuaka, ndeni vuaka, ndeniosa (Fiji); escobilla papago, escobilla adumelon (Guam-Chamorro); mautofu (Niue, Samoa); keak (Palau); motofu, te‘ehoosi (Tonga)

Malvaceae

herb

Sida glomerata

Other: mautofu (Samoa)

Malvaceae

shrub

Sidastrum paniculatum

Malvaceae

shrub

Sida rhombifolia

English: arrow-leaf sida, Cuban jute, Paddy's lucerne, Queensland-hemp, teaweed; French: faux thé, herbe à balais; Spanish: escoba; Other: purūmu (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)), thavuthindra, nggavi ni lawa, nggavi ni lathoi, ndenime, ndeniosa, ndeni vuaka, ndeni puaka, mbariara (Fiji); escobilla dalili, escobilla apaka, escobilla adumelon (Guam-Chamorro); motofu (Niue); keak (Palau); mautofu (Samoa, Niue?); mamafu‘ai (Solomon Islands); te‘ehosi, te‘ehoosi (Tonga)

Malvaceae

shrub

Sigesbeckia orientalis

English: Indian weed, small yellow crown-beard, yellow crown-head; Other: kamika (Cook Islands (Mangaia)), senikata (Fiji) ‘a‘ami‘a (Samoa), kakamika (Tonga, Wallis and Futuna)

Asteraceae

herb

Solanum nigrum

English: black-berry night shade (Australia), black nightshade, poisonberry; French: morelle noire; Spanish: hierba mora; Other: boro ni veiwere, malahome, boro ni yaloki ni gata (Fiji); polokai (Niue, Tonga); magalo, polo (Samoa)

Solanaceae

herb

Solenostemon scutellarioides

English: coleus; Other: terevete (Cook Islands); lata, lau lata (Fiji); weleweka (Hawai‘i); selevese (Niue); koramahd, koaramahd (Pohnpei); pate, patiale, la‘au fai sei (Samoa)

Lamiaceae

herb

Sonchus arvensis

English: corn sow thistle, field sow thistle, perennial sow thistle

Asteraceae

herb

Spermacoce assurgens

English: buttonweed; Other: okulabeluu (Palau)

Rubiaceae

herb

Spermacoce latifolia

Rubiaceae

herb

Spermacoce mauritiana

Rubiaceae

herb

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

English: bastard vervain, blue porterweed, Brazilian tea, Jamaica vervain, joee, light blue snakeweed; Other: ōwī, oī (Hawaii), te uti (Kiribati), louch beluu (Palau)

Verbenaceae

herb

Stenotaphrum secundatum

English: buffalo grass, St. Augustine grass; French: chiendent de boeuf; Spanish: pasto San Augustín; Other: ‘aki‘aki haole, mānienie ‘aki‘aki, mānienie ‘aki‘aki haole, mānienie māhikihiki (Hawai‘i)

Poaceae

grass

Stictocardia tiliifolia

English: stictocardia, crimson morning-glory; Other: abubo (Guam-Chamorro); pilikai (Hawai‘i); tagamimi, palulu (Samoa)

Convolvulaceae

vine

Struchium sparganophorum

Asteraceae

herb

Synedrella nodiflora

English: Cinderella weed (Australia), porter bush, pig grass (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu), synedrella; Spanish: cerbatana; Other: ngaroiarui (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); saigon (Guam—Chamorro); lau‘oti‘oti, tae‘oti (Samoa); pakaka, pakopako (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Tridax procumbens

English: coat buttons, tridax daisy, wild daisy (Fiji, Guam); Other: tubua leka, voti (Fiji)

Asteraceae

herb

Uraria lagopodioides

Other: lakanikasa, lakanirase, setamoli (Fiji); uluhenga? (Niue); iku‘ipusi (Tonga)

Fabaceae

herb

Urochloa glumaris

Poaceae

grass

Urochloa reptans

English: creeping panic grass, running grass; Spanish: San Juan de Castillo

Poaceae

grass

Vernonia cinerea

English: ironweed, little ironweed, vernonia; Other: vutikaumondro, tho vuka (Fiji); chaguan Santa Maria (Guam--Chamorro); etngeong (Palau); fisi puna (Tonga)

Asteraceae

herb

Waltheria indica

Other: ‘uhaloa, ‘ala‘ala pū loa, hal ‘uhaloa, hi‘aloa, kanakaloa (Hawai‘i)

Sterculiaceae

shrub

Yucca aloifolia

English: daggerplant, Spanish-bayonet; French: bayonnette; Spanish: yuca

Agavaceae

shrub

Sources: Swarbrick (1997), Waterhouse (1997) and Whistler (1988)


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This page new 26 November 2002, Table 2 updated 5 May 2003.