Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Report on invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta


Appendix 1.


Table 3. Other species that are known to be invasive or weedy and are present on Niue

Scientific Name

Common Names (abridged)

Family

Habit

Sykes (1970)

Whistler (1988)

Whistler (1997)

Space & Flynn (2000)

This survey (2004)

Abrus precatorius Niuean: mata'ila, pomea mataila; English: bead vine, coral bead plant, jequirity bean, licorice vine, lucky bean, precatory bean, rosary pea, weatherplant; Other: pitipitiō (Cook Islands (Rarotonga)), koviriviri mata-tako (Cook Islands (Mangaia), uiui (Cook Islands ('Atiu, Miti'aro, Ma'uke)), Kirikiri Rangi (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); pūkiawe, pūkiawe lei, pūkiawe lenalena [Ni'ihau], pūpūkiawe (Hawai'i); matamoso (Samoa) Fabaceae vine

X

 

X

 

 

Abutilon grandifolium English: hairy abutilon Malvaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

Acalypha indica Niuean: ongoongo, hongohongo; English: copperleaf, Indian-nettle, ricinela Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

 

X

X

Ageratum conyzoides Niuean: sekose sea; English: billygoat-weed, chick week, goatweed, whiteweed; Other: maire vaihi (French Polynesia); maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula (Hawai‘i); a‘amia, tae‘oti (Samoa); te‘ehosi (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Allamanda cathartica English: yellow trumpet vine, golden trumpet, allamanda, brownbud allamanda, golden allamanda, golden cup; Other: pua taunofo (American Samoa and Samoa), tiare rengarenga, pua (Cook Islands); lani-ali‘i (Hawai‘i) Apocynaceae vine

X

 

 

X

 

Alpinia purpurata English: red ginger; Other: kōpī muramura (Cook Islands); ‘awapuhi ‘ula‘ula (Hawai‘i); teuila (Samoa); tevunga (Tonga) Zingiberaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Alysicarpus vaginalis English: alyce-clover, buffalo-clover, one-leaf-clover Fabaceae herb

 

X

 

 

X

Amaranthus blitum English: amaranth, livid amaranth, slender amaranth; Other: tupu'a (Tonga) Amaranthaceae herb

 

X

 

 

 

Amaranthus viridis English: green amaranth, pigweed, slender amaranth; Other: va‘ine ‘ara (Cook Islands); pakai, ‘aheahea, pakaikai, pakapakai (Hawai‘i); ‘au tasi (Samoa); tupu‘a (Tonga) Amaranthaceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

*Angelonia salicariifolia English: willowleaf angelon, grannie’s bonnets, angelon Scrophulariaceae herb

X

*Annona glabra English: pond apple, alligator apple, bullock's heart, cherimoyer Annonaceae tree

 

 

 

 

X

*Annona reticulata Niuean: talopo; English: bullock's-heart, custard-apple Annonaceae tree

X

 

 

 

 

*Annona squamosa Niuean: talopo; English: sugar apple, sweetsop, custard apple, sugar apple; Other: tapotapo (Cook Islands, French Polynesia); tapotapo Māori (Cook Islands); kātara‘apa Māori (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); naponapo Māori (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); ‘apele papalangi, ‘apele Tonga (Tonga), nameana (Tuvalu) Annonaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

*Anredera cordifolia Niuean: filikafa; English: Madeira vine, mignonette vine, lamb's tails; Other: tāpau (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); ‘uala hupe (Hawai‘i) Basellaceae vine

X

 

 

 

 

Argemone mexicana English: Mexican prickly-poppy, Mexican poppy, prickly poppy, yellow thistle Papaveraceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

*Aristolochia littoralis English: Dutchman's pipe, calico flower; Other: mokorā (Cook Islands); fue paipa holani (Tonga) Aristolochiaceae vine

X

 

 

 

 

*Asparagus plumosus English: asparagus fern Liliaceae vine

X

 

 

 

 

Asystasia gangetica English: Chinese violet, Philippine violet, coromandel Acanthaceae herb

X

X

X

X

X

Axonopus compressus English: blanket grass, carpetgrass Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

X

Axonopus fissifolius English: caratao grass, narrow-leaved carpetgrass Poaceae grass

 

X

 

 

X

Bambusa spp. Niuean: kaho palangi, kaho papalangi; English: bamboo; Other: ko‘e papa‘ā (Cook Islands); ‘ohe (French Polynesia, Hawai‘i); ‘ofe (French Polynesia, Samoa); ‘ofe Fiti, ‘ofe palagi (Samoa); kofe (Tonga, Tuvalu); pitu (Tonga); pampu (Tuvalu) Poaceae tree

X

 

 

 

X

Bauhinia monandra Niuean: pine fua loloa; English: orchid-tree, St. Thomas-tree, Napoleon's plume; Other: vae povi (American Samoa and Samoa); pine (Cook Islands (Rarotonga), French Polynesia); pīpīpipi (Cook Islands (Aitu)); pī pi (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke and Miti‘aro)) Fabaceae tree

X

 

 

X

Bauhinia sp.

Begonia x_semperflorens-cultorum English: bedding begonia, perpetual begonia, wax begonia Begoniaceae herb

 

 

 

 

X

Bidens pilosa Niuean: kofetonga, kofetoga; English: beggar’s tick, Spanish needle, cobbler's pegs; Other: piripiri kerekere (Cook Islands); piripiri (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)); nīroa (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); kamika tuarongo (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); tae puaka (Futuna); ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, nehe (Hawai'i); fisi'uli (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

X

X

*Bixa orellana English: anatto, annato, annatto, arnatto, lipstick tree; French: atole, roucou, roucouyer; Other: ‘uaeva, tāmuramura (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)), ‘uaefa (French Polynesia (Tahiti)) Bixaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

Blechum pyramidatum English: green shrimp plant, blackweed (Samoa), Browne’s blechum; Other: vao uli (Samoa) Acanthaceae herb

 

 

 

 

X

Borreria verticillata   Rubiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Bothriochloa bladhii English: blue grass, Australian beardgrass, Caucasian bluestem Poaceae grass

 

X

X

X

X

Brassica juncea English: Chinese mustard, India mustard, Indian mustard, Oriental mustard Brassicaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Breynia disticha English: snowbush, snowbush breynia, foliage-flower; Other: maemae (Cook Islands (Miti‘aro)) Euphorbiaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

Cajanus cajan English: pigeon pea, red gram, cajan Fabaceae shrub

X

*Caladium bicolor English: caladium, elephant's-ear, fancy-leaf caladium, heart-of-Jesus; Other: kalo-kalakoa (Hawai'i) Araceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

*Calliandra sp. English: powderpuff, calliandra; Other: kaliana (Samoa) Fabaceae shrub

 

 

 

 

X

Calopogonium mucunoides English: calopo Fabaceae vine

X

 

 

X

X

*Calotropis gigantea English: calotrope, crown flower, madar; Other: pua-kalaunu (Hawai'i); tahinu (French Polynesia) Ascelepiadaceae shrub

X

 

 

X

X

*Cananga odorata Niuean: motōi; English: perfume tree; Other: moso‘oi (American Samoa and Samoa); moto‘oi, mata‘oi, mato‘oi (Cook Islands, Tahiti); moto‘i (French Polynesia); lanalana (Hawai‘i); mohoki, mohokoi (Tonga) Annonaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

Canna indica English: canna, canna lily, Indian shot; Other: fanamanu, fagamanu, fa‘i masoa (American Samoa and Samoa); nūāenga (Cook Islands); tiare papa‘ā (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); pia renga (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); pia-raroto‘a (French Polynesia); fagafaga (Futuna); ali‘ipoe, li'ipoe, poloka (Hawai'i); te misimisi (Tonga) Cannaceae herb

X

X

 

X

X

*Carludovica palmata English: Panama hat plant; Other:  Panamā (Cook Islands) Cyclanthaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

 

Casuarina equisetifolia Niuean: toa; English: casuarina, ironwood, Australian pine, she-oak, horsetail tree, beefwood; Other: toa (American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Hawai‘i, Samoa and Tonga); ‘aito (French Polynesia (Society Islands)) Casuarinaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

Catharanthus roseus English: Cape periwinkle, Madagascar periwinkle, old-maid, rosy periwinkle; Other: tiare tāpau (Cook Islands), kihapai (Hawai‘i)) Apocynaceae herb

X

 

X

 

X

*Ceiba pentandra Niuean: vavae; English: kapok, kapok tree, silk-cotton tree, pacae; Other: vavae (American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga); vavai (Cook Islands and French Polynesia); vavai mama‘u, vavai maori (Cook Islands); mama‘u (Cook Islands (Mangaia, Aitutaki?)) Bombacaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

*Celosia argentea English: cockscomb Amaranthaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Cenchrus ciliaris English: buffelgrass, African foxtail grass, anjan grass Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

 

Cenchrus echinatus Niuean: mosie vihilago, mosie vihilango; English: burgrass, sand-bur, southern sandbur, Mossman River grass (Australia); Other: tuitui, vao tuitui (American Samoa and Samoa); piripiri (Cook Islands); piri-piri, pipiri (French Polynesia); mau‘u kuku, ‘ume‘alu (Hawai'i); hefa (Tonga) Poaceae grass

X

X

X

X

X

Centella asiatica Niuean: tono, tonu; English: Asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort, marsh pennywort, pennyweed, sheep-rot, thankuni; Other: kapukapu (Cook Islands); pohe kula (Hawai‘i); tono (Tonga); togo (Samoa) Apiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Centrosema pubescens English: centro, butterfly-pea Fabaceae vine

X

X

 

X

X

*Cestrum nocturnum Niuean: ike he po; English: night-flowering cestrum, night-flowering jasmine, queen (or lady) of the night; Other: teine o le po, ali‘i o le po (American Samoa and Samoa); tiare ariki-va‘ine, ariki-va‘ine (Cook Islands); ‘ala aumoe, kupaoa, onaona Iapana (Hawai‘i); lakau po‘uli (Tonga) Solanaceae shrub

X

X

 

X

X

Chamaesyce hirta Niuean: toto tāne; English: asthma plant, garden spurge, pill-bearing spurge, hairy spurge; Other: totototo titā (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); eaea, raau topau (French Polynesia); koko kahiki (Hawai‘i); la‘au fai moti (Samoa); sakisi (Tonga) Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Chamaesyce hypericifolia English: beach spurge, graceful spurge; Other: ufi tamaiti? (Samoa) Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Chamaesyce prostrata Niuean: toto fifine; English: creeping splurge, prostrate spurge, red caustic creeper; Other: laulili'i (Samoa); papati (French Polynesia (Society Islands)) Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Chloris barbata English: swollen fingergrass, purpletop chloris (Australia), airport grass (Fiji); Other: mau’u lei (Hawai'i) Poaceae grass

 

X

 

 

X

Chloris gayana English: Rhodes grass Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

 

Cyclospermum leptophyllum Niuean: taletale, sekule?; English: fir-leaved celery, marsh parsley, slender celery Apiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Cleome viscosa English: tickweed, spider flower Capparaceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

Clerodendrum buchananii var. fallax Niuean: lauma pelu, talufe?; English: red clerodendrum, pagoda-flower; Other: rākau tupopoku (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); lau‘awa (Hawai‘i); amo’ula, amo’ule (Tonga) Lamiaceae shrub

X

X

X

X

 

*Coffea arabica Niuean: kofe; English: coffee; Other: kaope, kaope Maori (Cook Islands); kofe (Samoa), kafe (French Polynesia (Marquesas)); kofi (Tonga); taofe (Tahiti) Rubiaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

Conyza bonariensis English: flax-leaf fleabane, hairy fleabane, hairy horseweed, wavy-leaf fleabane; Other: lani wela (Hawai‘i) Asteraceae herb

 

 

X

 

X

Conyza canadensis English: butterweed, Canadian horseweed, Canadian fleabane, hogweed, horseweed Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

Coronopus didymus English: bittercress, swinecress, wart cress; Other: lesivao (Tonga) Brassicaceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

*Costus speciosus English: crepe ginger, crape ginger, wild ginger, Malay ginger, canereed Zingiberaceae herb

 

 

 

X

X

Crassocephalum crepidioides English: thickhead, fireweed, redflower ragleaf; Other: fua lele, pualele (American Samoa and Samoa); fisi puna (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Crotalaria micans Niuean: pinē kotalelia; pile; English: crotalaria Fabaceae shrub

X

 

X

X

X

Crotalaria pallida Niuean: pinē kotalelia; English: salts rattlebox, smooth crotalaria, smooth rattlebox, smooth rattlepod, streaked rattlepod, striped crotalaria; Other: maniva (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); pikakani, kolomona (Hawai‘i); pi'isi (Tonga) Fabaceae shrub

X

X

X

 

X

Crotalaria verrucosa English: blue-flower rattlepod, tooth-leaf rattlepod Fabaceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

Cuscuta campestris English: golden dodder, field dodder, five-angled dodder; Other: tiaea (Cook Islands (Mangaia)) Cuscutaceae vine

X

X

 

X

X

Cynodon dactylon Niuean: mosie molulu; English: Bermuda grass, giant Bermuda grass, bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, grama, devilgrass, couchgrass, balama grass; Other: matie (Cook Islands); manini, manienie (Hawai‘i) Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

X

Cyperus compressus English: flat sedge; Other: pakopako (Tonga) Cyperaceae sedge

X

 

 

 

X

Cyperus cyperoides Niuean: pako; Other: tuise (Samoa); pako pako (Tonga) Cyperaceae sedge

X

X

 

 

 

Cyperus gracilis English: McCoy grass, slender sedge, whisker grass, whisker sedge; Other: mau‘u hunehune (Hawai‘i) Cyperaceae sedge

 

X

 

 

 

Cyperus involucratus English: umbrella sedge, umbrella plant, dwarf papyrus grass; Other: ‘ahu‘awa haole, pu‘uka‘a haole (Hawai‘i) Cyperaceae sedge

X

X

 

X

X

Cyperus rotundus English: nut grass, nutsedge, purple nutsedge, cocograss; Other: mauku ‘ōniāni, ‘ōniāni (Cook Islands); kili'o'opu, mau‘u mokae (Hawai‘i); mumuta (Samoa, Tokelau); pakopako (Tonga) Cyperaceae sedge

X

X

X

 

X

Dactyloctenium aegyptium English: beach wiregrass, button grass, coast button grass, comb fringe grass, crowfoot grass, duck grass, finger comb grass Poaceae grass

 

X

 

 

 

Datura metel English: datura, downy thorn-apple, Hindu datura, Hindu thorn-apple, hoary thorn-apple, horn-of-plenty, jimson-weed, purple thorn-apple; Other: pūāve (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke, Ngaputoru?) Solanaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Derris malaccensis Niuean: akau niukini, niukini; English: New Guinea creeper; Other: ‘ava niukini (American Samoa and Samoa); ‘ora pāpua, rakau papua (Cook Islands); hora papua (French Polynesia); kava fisi (Tonga) Fabaceae vine

X

 

X

X

 

Desmodium incanum English: kaimi clover, Spanish clover; Other: ngātoro (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); ka‘imi (Hawai‘i) Fabaceae shrub

X

X

X

 

X

Desmodium triflorum English: creeping tick trefoil, three-flower beggarweed, tropical trefoil; Other: kihikihi (Tonga) Fabaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Desmodium uncinatum English: silverleaf desmodium, Spanish clover, Spanish tick-clover Fabaceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

Dichanthium annulatum English: Angleton grass, bluestem, Diaz bluestem, Hindi grass, Kleberg bluestem, marvel grass, sheda grass, vunda blue grass (Fiji) Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

 

*Dieffenbachia seguine English: dieffenbachia, dumb cane Araceae herb

 

 

 

 

X

Digitaria ciliaris Niuean: saulangi; English: Henry's crabgrass, smooth crabgrass, tropical crab grass, large crab grass, southern crabgrass, fingergrass, summer grass; Other: kukaepua'a (Hawai'i) Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

X

Digitaria violascens English: smooth crabgrass, violet crabgrass Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

 

Echinochloa colona English: awnless barnyard grass (Australia), corn panic grass, Deccan grass, jungle ricegrass, millet-rice, pigeon millet (Samoa), shama millet; Other: sefa (Samoa); muhuku'apopoa, matala'ulie (Tonga) Poaceae grass

 

X

 

 

 

Echinochloa crus-galli English: barnyard grass, cockspur grass Poaceae grass

X

 

 

 

 

Eclipta prostrata English: eclipta, false daisy, swamp daisy, white eclipta; Other: miri mapua (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)) Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

*Elaeis guineensis English: African oil palm;Other: nū tāmara (Cook Islands (Mangaia)) Arecaceae tree

X

 

 

X

 

Eleutheranthera ruderalis Other: pakaka (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

 

X

 

 

X

Emilia sonchifolia Niuean: pualele, pupu lele; English: Cupid's shaving-brush, emilia, Flora's paint brush, purple sow thistle, sow thistle; Other: pualele (Samoa); fua lele, fua lele lili‘i (Samoa); longlongo‘uha (Tonga)) Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

Eragrostis amabilis English: Bug's egg grass, Japanese love grass, love grass Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

X

*Eugenia uniflora Niuean: kafika, kafika palangi, kafika papalangi; English: Surinam cherry, red Brazil cherry; Other: venevene (Cook Islands); menemene (Cook Islands (Mangaia)) Myrtaceae shrub/tree

X

 

 

X

X

Euphorbia cyathophora Niuean: toto uli?; English: dwarf poinsettia, fire-on-the-mountain, Mexican fire plant, painted spurge, wild poinsettia Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Euphorbia heterophylla English: Mexican fireplant, milkweed, painted euphorbia, paintedleaf, wild spurge; Other: kaliko (Hawai‘i) Euphorbiaceae herb

 

X

X

 

X

*Ficus elastica English: India rubber tree, rubber plant; Other: rapa (Cook Islands) Moraceae tree

 

 

 

X

X

*Flacourtia jangomas Niuean: palamu; English: Indian-plum, runeala-plum; Other: venevene pāma (Cook Islands) Flacourtiaceae tree

X

 

 

 

 

Foeniculum vulgare Niuean: taletale; English: fennel; Other: taretare tui-‘ei (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)) Apiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Furcraea foetida Niuean: toua; English: Mauritius hemp, maguey; Other: piāni, rōpiāni (Cook Islands); malina (Hawai‘i (Ni‘ihau)); faumalila, fau malila (Tonga) Agavaceae succulent

X

 

X

X

X

*Gliricidia sepium English: mother of cacao, quickstick, Mexican lilac Fabaceae tree

 

 

 

X

X

*Gloriosa superba English: climbing-lily, creeping-lily, flame-lily, glory-lily, gloriosa lily; Other: riri vavai-moa (Cook Islands ('Atiu)) Liliaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Glycine tabacina   Fabaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

*Gomphrena globosa Niuean: malila; English: bachelor's-button, bozu, globe amaranth, pearly everlasting; Other: pōkai kura (Cook Islands); poe ura (French Polynesia); lehua mau loa, lehua, lehua pepa, leihua (Hawai‘i); (Samoa) Amaranthaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

*Gossypium barbadense Niuean: vavae; English: cotton, sea island cotton; Other: vavaī (Cook Islands); kī‘ailana, pulupulu, pulupulu haole, (Hawai‘i) Malvaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

*Grevillea robusta English: silky oak, he oak, silver oak, spider flower; Other: ‘oka kilika, ha‘iku ke‘oke‘o (Hawai'i), oke‘ (Tonga) Proteaceae tree

X

 

 

X

 

Hedychium flavescens Niuean: keuila; English: yellow ginger, cream ginger; Other: teuila (American Samoa and Samoa); kōpī rengarenga, re‘a rengarenga (Cook Islands); opuhi rea rea (French Polynesia); ‘awapuhi melemele (Hawai'i) Zingiberaceae herb

X

 

 

X

 

*Heliconia spp. English: heliconia, parrot's-flower, parrot's-plantain, crab claw, lobster claw; Other: tiare pārata‘ito (Cook Islands), vae paa (Samoa) Heliconiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Hibiscus diversifolius Niuean: fou hele, fou igo; English: swamp hibiscus Malvaceae herb

X

X

X

X

X

*Impatiens balsamina English: impatiens, balsam, garden balsam, rose balsam, spotted snapweed, touch-me-not; Other: polosomo (Tonga) Balsaminaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

*Indigofera hirsuta English: hairy indigo, rough hairy indigo Fabaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

 

Indigofera spicata English: creeping indigo Fabaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Indigofera suffruticosa English: indigo; Other: ‘initiko (Cook Islands); ‘iniko, inikoa, kolu (Hawai'i); la‘au mageso (Samoa); ‘akau veli (Tonga) Fabaceae shrub

 

X

 

 

X

Ipomoea cairica Niuean: sefifi sea; English: Cairo morning glory, coastal morning glory, ivy-leaved morning glory, railroad-creeper; Other: koali ‘ai, koali, koali ‘ai‘ai (Ni‘ihau), koali lau manamana, kowali, pa‘ali (Hawai‘i) Convolvulaceae vine

X

X

 

 

 

*Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa English: bush morning glory, tree ipomoea Convolvulaceae shrub

 

 

 

 

X

*Ipomoea quamoclit English: Cupid's flower, cypress vine, cypressvine morning-glory, star of Bethlehem, star-glory, sweet-willy Convolvulaceae vine

X

 

 

 

 

Ipomoea triloba English: Aiea morning-glory, little bel Convolvulaceae vine

 

 

 

 

X

*Ischaemum indicum English: batiki blue grass (Fiji) Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

 

*Jacaranda mimosifolia English: jacaranda Bignoniaceae tree

 

 

 

 

X

*Jasminum sambac English: Arabian jasmine; Other: pītate papa‘ā (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)) Oleaceae vine

X

 

 

 

X

*Jatropha curcas English: physic nut, purging nut, Barbados nut; Other: tuitui pakarangi, pakarani (Cook Islands); fiki (Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga); kuku‘ihi (Hawai‘i), kuikui Pake (Hawai‘i (Ni‘ihau), laupata (Samoa) Euphorbiaceae shrub

 

 

 

 

X

Kyllinga brevifolia English: green kyllinga, green water sedge; Other: tuise (American Samoa and Samoa); tumu ‘enua (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); kili‘o‘opu, kaluha, manunene, mau‘u mokae (Hawai‘i); pakopako (Tonga) Cyperaceae sedge

X

X

 

 

 

Lablab purpureus English: hyacinth bean, lablab, bonavist, Egyptian kidney bean, dolichos; Other: papapa, pi (Hawai'i); pini lae puaka (Tonga) Fabaceae vine

X

X

 

 

 

Leontodon taraxacoides English: rough hawkbit Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

Leonurus japonicus English: lion’s tail, Chinese motherwort; Other: vavai tara (Cook Islands (Miti‘aro) Lamiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Lepidium virginicum English: peppergrass, Virginia peppercress, Virginia pepperweed, wild peppercress; Other: naunau (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)) Brassicaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Lycopersicon esculentum English: tomato, wild tomato; Other: tōmāti (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti)) Solanaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Macroptilium atropurpureum English: siratro, purple bushbean Fabaceae vine

X

X

X

 

X

Macroptilium lathyroides English: cow pea, phasey bean, wild bean; Other: pini (Tonga) Fabaceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

Malvastrum coromandelianum English: false mallow, prickly malvastrum; Other: purūmu (Cook Islands); te‘ehosi, te‘ehoosi (Tonga) Malvaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Mirabilis jalapa English: beauty of the night, false jalap, four o'clock, marvel of Peru; Other: nani ahiahi, pua ahiahi, puahiahi (Hawai‘i) Nyctaginaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Momordica charantia English: balsam-apple, bitter-melon, bitter gourd, balsam pear, squirting cucumber, cerasee, peria; Other: pōkutekute rengarenga (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); meleni 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia (Tonga) Cucurbitaceae vine

X

X

 

 

 

*Moringa oleifera English: horseradish tree, drumstick tree, ben nut, morango Moringaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

*Murraya paniculata English: orange jessamine, satin-wood, Chinese box, Hawaiian mock orange; Other: tiare ‘ānani (Cook Islands, French Polynesia) Rutaceae shrub/tree

 

 

 

 

X

Neonotonia wightii English: glycine Fabaceae vine

X

 

 

X

X

Nicandra physalodes English: apple of Peru, shooflyplant Solanaceae herb

 

X

 

 

 

*Ocimum basilicum Niuean: momili, momili elo; English: basil, common basil, sweet basil; Other: kī ‘a‘ala, kī paoa (Hawai‘i) Lamiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

*Odontonema tubaeforme English: fire spike, cardinal flower; Other: totoe (American Samoa and Samoa) Acanthaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

Oldenlandia corymbosa English: Old World diamondflower Rubiaceae herb

 

 

 

 

X

Oplismenus hirtellus English: basket grass, woods grass; Other: honohono kukui, honohono, honohono maoli (Hawai‘i) Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

 

*Orthosiphon aristatus English: cat’s whiskers; Other: ‘ava pusi (Samoa), kava ‘i pusi (Tonga) Lamiaceae herb

X

X

 

 

Paspalum conjugatum Niuean: moise vailima, moise vaolima, vailima, vaolima; English: T grass, ti grass, sour grass; sour palpalum, buffalo grass, carabao grass, Hilo grass (Hawai'i); Other: vaolima, (American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga); mauku taravao, mauku katini (Cook Islands); mau‘u Hilo (Hawai‘i), moise vaolima, mosie vailima, vailima (Tonga); vaolima matafao, vaolima papalagi (Samoa) Poaceae grass

X

X

X

X

X

Paspalum dilatatum Niuean: hiku nua; English: paspalum, dallis grass, water grass Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

X

Paspalum paniculatum English: Russell river grass, galmarra grass; Other: matie manutai (Cook Islands); taravao ‘uru‘uru (Cook Islands (Mangaia)) Poaceae grass

 

 

 

 

X

Paspalum scrobiculatum English: rice grass; creeping paspalum, ditch millet, Indian paspalum, kodo millet, water couch; Other: māatāa (Cook Islands); mau‘u laiki (Hawai‘i); Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

 

Passiflora edulis English: passion fruit, yellow passion fruit, purple passion fruit, qarandila, purple granadilla; Other: pārapōutini papa‘ā (Cook Islands); ka‘atene papa‘ā, katinga papa‘ā (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); liliko‘i (Hawai‘i); pasio (Samoa); vaine (Tonga) Passifloraceae vine

X

 

 

X

X

*Passiflora laurifolia English: yellow granadilla, belle apple, yellow water-lemon; Other: pasio vao (Samoa); vaine 'ae kuma (Tonga) Passifloraceae vine

X

X

 

X

 

Passiflora maliformis English: hard-shelled passionfruit, sweet calabash, sweet cup; Other: pārapōutini ‘enua, pārapōutini Maori (Cook Islands); ka‘atene Maori, katinga Maori (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); pasio (Samoa), vaine kai (Tonga) Passifloraceae vine

X

X

 

X

 

*Passiflora quadrangularis Niuean: palasini, vinē palasini; English: granadilla, giant granadilla; Other: papatini, pārapōtini, (Cook Islands); kūukuma (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); maratini (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke, Miti‘aro)); para pautini (French Polynesia); pasio (Samoa); pasione (Tonga) Passifloraceae vine

X

 

 

X

X

Peperomia pellucida Piperaceae herb

X

*Persea americana Niuean: avoka; English: avocado, alligator pear; Other: ‘āpuka, ‘āpoka (Cook Islands); avoka (Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga); ‘āvōta (Cook Islands (Ngaputoru)) Lauraceae tree

X

 

 

 

X

Phyllanthus amarus Other: moemoe (Cook Islands); moemoe uouo (French Polynesia) Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Phyllanthus virgatus English: seed-under-leaf (Samoa); Other: moemoe 'enua? (Cook Islands); 'avasa (Samoa) Euphorbiaceae herb

X

X

 

 

 

Physalis minima Niuean: manini; English: sunberry Solanaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Physalis peruviana Niuean: manini; English: Cape gooseberry, goldenberry, gooseberry-tomato, Peruvian ground-cherry; Other: tūpera (Cook Islands); tupere (French Polynesia), pohā, pa‘ina (Hawai‘i); ku‘usi (Tonga) Solanaceae shrub

X

X

 

 

X

Pilea microphylla Niuean: pikimaka?; English: artillery plant, gunpowder plant, pistol plant, rockweed, Samoan fern (Samoa); Other: kiona topa (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)), tamole (Samoa) Urticaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

*Pinus caribaea English: Caribbean pine, Bahamas pine; Other: paina papa‘ā (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); paina (Samoa); paini (Tonga) Pinaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

Plantago lanceolata English: buckhorn, buckhorn plantain, English plantain, narrow-leaved plantain, plantain (Vanuatu), ribgrass, ribwort plantain; Other: filo, filohako (Tonga) Plantaginaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Plantago major English: broadleaf plantain, common plantain, greater plantain; Other: laukahi, kūhēkili (Hawai‘i); filo, filomatolu (Tonga) Plantaginaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

*Plectranthus amboinicus Niuean: pasiole; English: Mexican mint, Spanish thyme, Cuban oregano; Other: pasiole (Tonga); la‘au tai‘e, militini (Samoa); kaloni (Tonga) Lamiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Polygala paniculata English: island snake-root; Other: namupululola, pulunamulole (Samoa) Polygalaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Portulaca oleracea Niuean: kamole; English: pigweed, purslane; Other: pōkea papa‘ā (Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tuamotus)); katuri (Cook Islands (Penrhyn)); ongoongo (Cook Islands (Pukapuka)); aturi (French Polynesia (Tahiti); ‘ākulikuli kula, ‘ākulikuli lau li‘i, ‘ihi (Hawai‘i); pokea (French Polynesia (Marquesas, Tuamotu)); tamole (Samoa, Tonga) Portulacaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Pseudelephantopus spicatus English: false elephant foot, tobacco weed (Vanuatu), Yasawa tobacco weed (Fiji); Other: vao elefane, vao maligi, vao malini (Samoa) Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

*Pseuderanthemum carruthersii English: false eranthemum; Other: tiare ‘āpa-mata‘iti (Cook Islands) Acanthaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

Pueraria phaseoloides English: tropical kudzu, puero; Other: kūkū (Cook Islands (‘Aitu)) Fabaceae vine

X

 

 

X

X

*Quisqualis indica English: Rangoon creeper Combretaceae vine

X

 

 

 

X

Rhynchosia minima Niuean: pinē Liku; English: rhynchosia Fabaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Ruellia prostrata English: black weed, bell weed; Other: vao uli (American Samoa and Samoa); tītā ‘aruru (Cook Islands (Miti‘aro)) Acanthaceae herb

 

X

X

 

X

Russelia equisetiformis Niuean: tamafine; English: coralplant, fountainplant; Other: menemene (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)) Scrophulariaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

X

*Salix babylonica English: weeping willow Salicaceae tree

X

 

 

 

 

*Samanea saman English: monkeypod, rain tree, saman; Other: 'ohai, pu ‘ohai (Hawai'i); malapa (Samoa); kasia (Tonga) Fabaceae tree

X

 

 

X

X

*Sambucus mexicana English: elderberry, Mexican elder Caprifoliaceae small tree

 

 

 

X

X

*Sanchezia parvibracteata English: sanchezia Acanthaceae shrub

 

 

 

 

X

Sansevieria trifasciata English: bowstring hemp, mother-in-law’s tongue; Other: riri (Cook Islands) Agavaceae herb

X

 

 

X

X

*Senna alata Niuean: mulamula; English: candle bush; candelabra bush, ringworm bush (Australia), alcapulco; Other: fa‘i lafa, la‘au fai lafa (American Samoa, Samoa and Tonga); te‘elango (Tonga) Fabaceae shrub

X

 

 

X

X

Senna occidentalis English: antbush, coffee senna; Other: ‘auko‘i, ‘au‘auko‘i, mikipalaoa, pī hohono (Hawai‘i); te‘epulu (Tonga) Fabaceae shrub

X

X

X

X

X

Sida acuta Niuean: mautofu, motofu, English: broom weed, Paddy’s lucerne, southern sida, spiny-head sida, spiny sida; Other: purūmu (Cook Islands); mautofu (Samoa); motofu, te‘ehoosi (Tonga) Malvaceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

Solenostemon scutellarioides Niuean: selevese; English: coleus; Other: terevete (Cook Islands); weleweka (Hawai‘i); pate, patiale, la‘au fai sei (Samoa) Lamiaceae herb

X

 

 

 

X

Sonchus oleraceus Niuean: puha, pupe lele; English: annual sow thistle, common sow thistle, hare's-lettuce, milk thistle, sow thistle; Other: pū‘ā (Cook Islands); pualele (Hawai‘i), longolongo'uha (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Sorghum bicolor English: Sudan grass; Other: tarapī (Cook Islands), kola (Tonga) Poaceae grass

X

 

 

 

 

Spermacoce assurgens English: buttonweed Rubiaceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Sporobolus indicus English: smutgrass, wiregrass, Indian dropseed; Other: fisihina (Tonga) Poaceae grass

 

X

X

 

X

Stylosanthes guianensis English: stylo, Brazilian lucerne, tropical lucerne, Nigerian stylo; Other: mauku puakatoro (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)) Fabaceae herb

X

 

 

X

 

Synedrella nodiflora English: Cinderella weed (Australia), porter bush, pig grass (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu), synedrella; Other: ngaroiarui (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); lau‘oti‘oti, tae‘oti (Samoa); pakaka, pakopako (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

*Syzygium cumini English: Java plum; jambolan plum; Other: pistati, ka‘ika (Cook Islands); paramu (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)) Myrtaceae tree

X

 

 

 

X

*Syzygium jambos English: malabar plum, rose apple, Malay apple; Other: ka‘ika papa‘ā (Cook Islands except Ma‘uke), ka‘ika takataka (Cook Islands); ka‘ika varani (Cook Islands (Mangaia)); ka‘ika (Cook Islands (‘Atiu)); ahi‘a papa‘a, ahi‘a popa‘a (French Polynesia), ‘ohi‘a loke (Hawai‘i); seasea papalagi (Samoa); fekika papalangi (Tonga) Myrtaceae tree

X

 

 

X

 

Taraxacum officinale English: common dandelion, dandelion, lion's-tooth; Other: laulele, lauhele (Hawai‘i) Asteraceae herb

X

X

 

 

X

*Tecoma stans English: yellow bells, yellow-elder, yellow trumpetbush; Other: tekoma (Cook Islands); piti (French Polynesia, Tonga) Bignoniaceae small tree

X

 

 

X

X

*Tephrosia candida English: white tephrosia, white hoary-pea Fabaceae shrub

X

 

 

 

 

Thunbergia fragrans English: white lady, white thunbergia, sweet clock-vine; Other: fue hina (Tonga) Acanthaceae vine

X

X

 

 

X

*Tillandsia usneoides English: Spanish moss, old man's beard, grandfather’s whiskers, air plant Bromeliaceae bromeliad

 

 

 

X

X

*Toona ciliata [=australis] English: Australian red cedar, toon, surian, Indian mahogany; Other: wood pikake (Hawai‘i); tuna (Samoa); sita kula (Tonga) Meliaceae tree

X

Tripsacum laxum English: Guatemala grass Poaceae grass

X

 

 

 

X

Triumfetta rhomboidea Niuean: mosipo; English: Chinese burr, paroquet burr, burr bush; Other: mautofu, mautofu vao (American Samoa and Samoa); vavai tara tītā (Cook Islands); piripiri (Cook Islands (Aitutaki)); urio (French Polynesia); mo‘osipo (Tonga) Tiliaceae shrub

X

X

X

X

X

Urena lobata Niuean: mosipo?; English: hibiscus burr, aramina, caesarweed, pink Chinese burr, urena burr, bur mallow; Other: mautofu (American Samoa and Samoa); vavai tara tītā (Cook Islands (Ma‘uke)); piripiri (Cook Islands, French Polynesia); mo'osipo Tonga (Tonga) Malvaceae shrub

X

X

 

 

 

Urochloa [=Brachiaria] glumaris   Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

 

Urochloa [=Brachiaria] mutica English: California grass, para grass, buffalo grass, signal grass; Other: mauku puakatoro (Cook Islands); puakatau (Tonga) Poaceae grass

X

X

 

 

X

Urochloa [=Brachiaria] subquadripara English: brachiaria, green summer grass, tropical signalgrass, cori grass Poaceae grass

X

X

X

 

 

Verbena bonariensis Niuean: momili vao; English: purpletop, South American vervain, tall verbena Verbenaceae herb

X

 

 

 

 

Vernonia cinerea English: ironweed, little ironweed, vernonia; Other: fisi puna (Tonga) Asteraceae herb

X

X

X

 

X

Waltheria indica Other: ‘uhaloa, ‘ala‘ala pū loa, hal ‘uhaloa, hi‘aloa, kanakaloa (Hawai‘i) Sterculiaceae shrub

X

X

 

X

X

Youngia japonica English: oriental hawksbeard Asteraceae herb

 

X

 

 

 

*Cultivated


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