Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Hawaii's Most Invasive Horticultural Plants


This is a list of the worst invasive horticultural plants in Hawaii as put forth by the Hawaii State Alien Species Coordinator (Hawaii State Department of Land & Natural Resources [DLNR], Division of Forestry &Wildlife [DOFAW]) (May 2001). It is urged that species on this list not be grown anywhere in the state of Hawaii.

For more information about invasiveness of these & other horticultural plants, the problems they cause, and the criteria by which these species were selected for this list, see DLNR's website Hawaii's Most Invasive Horticultural Plants: An Introduction .

Questions? Comments? Write: webmaster@hear.org


Species (Family) Common Name Other names
Acacia confusa (Fabaceae) Formosan koa  
Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae) mule's foot fern giant fern
Antigonon leptopus (Polygonaceae) Mexican creeper mountain rose, coral bells, confederate vine, chain-of-love, hearts-on-a-chain
Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae) Hilo holly hens eyes, Ardisia crispa, Ardisia crenulata
Ardisia elliptica (Myrsinaceae) shoebutton ardisia Ardisia humilis, Ardisia solanacea, Ardisia squamulosa
Artabotrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae) climbing ylang-ylang lanalana
Arthrostema ciliatum (Melastomataceae) arthrostemma Arthrostemma latifolia, Arthrostemma fragile
Asparagus densiflorus (Liliaceae) asparagus fern sprengeri fern, foxtail asparagus, Asparagus sprengeri Regel
Asparagus setaceus (Liliaceae) climbing asparagus fern plumosa, Asparagus plumosus Baker, Protasparagus plumosus
Azolla (all species) (Azollaceae) mosquito fern ferny azolla
Buddleja davidii (Buddlejaceae) orange-eyed butterfly bush summer lilac, buddleia
Buddleja madagascariensis (Buddlejaceae) butterfly bush smoke bush, buddleia
Carmona retusa (Boraginaceae) Fukien tea Philippine tea, Carmona microphylla, Ehretia buxifolia, Ehretia microphylla
Casuarina (all species) (Casuarinaceae) ironwood Australian pine, she-oak, beefwood, toa
Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae) day cestrum makahala, Chinese inkberry
Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) night cestrum night-blooming jasmine, 'Ala-aumoe, kupaoa, onaona-iapana
Chrysophyllum oliviforme (Sapotaceae) satin leaf caimitillo; Chrysophyllum monopyrenum
Cinnamomum burmannii (Lauraceae) Padang cassia cinnamon tree
Cissus nodosa (Vitaceae) grape ivy  
Citharexylum caudatum (Verbenaceae) fiddlewood juniper berry
Citharexylum spinosum (Verbenaceae) fiddlewood Citharexylum quadrangulare
Clerodendrum buchanani (Verbenaceae) pagoda flower lau'awa, Clerodendrum fallax, C. speciosissimum
Clerodendrum chinense (Verbenaceae) glory bower Clerodendrum philippinum, Clerodendrum fragrans
Clerodendrum macrostegium (Verbenaceae) (no common name)  
Clusia rosea (Clusiaceae) autograph tree copey, Scotch attorney
Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) ivy gourd scarlet-fruited gourd
Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) buttonwood sea mulberry, button mangrove
Cortaderia jubata and Cortaderia selloana (Poaceae) pampas grass  
Cotoneaster pannosus (Rosaceae) cotoneaster  
Cryptostegia (all species) (Asclepidaceae) rubber vine, India rubber vine (includes Cryptostegia grandiflora and Cryptostegia madagascariensis)
Cupaniopsis anacardioides (Sapindaceae) carrotwood  
Delairea odorata (Asteraceae) German ivy Senecio mikanioides, Italian ivy, African ivy, Cape ivy, climbing groundsel
Dillenia suffruticosa (Dilleniaceae) shrubby simpoh  
Duranta erecta (Verbenaceae) golden dewdrop duranta, pigeon berry, Duranta repens
Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) water hyacinth  
Elaeagnus umbellata (Elaeagnaceae) oleaster autumn olive
Erigeron karvinskianus (Asteraceae) daisy fleabane Mexican daisy
Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) loquat Japanese medlar
Ficus cf. platypoda (Moraceae) Port Jackson fig (local name) (this plant is commonly referred to in Hawaii incorrectly as Ficus rubiginosa)
Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae) Chinese banyan Malayan banyan, Ficus retusa, Ficus nitida
Fuchsia boliviana (Onagraceae) fuchsia lady's eardrops
Fuchsia magellanica (Onagraceae) hardy fuchsia lady's eardrops, earring flower, kulapepeiao
Fuchsia paniculata (Onagraceae) fuchsia Lady's eardrops
Furcraea foetida (Agavaceae) Mauritius hemp maguey, Furcraea gigantea
Grevillea robusta (Proteaceae) silk oak she oak, he oak, silver oak, kahili flower, spider flower, ha'iku-ke'oke'o
Hedychium coronarium (Zingiberaceae) white ginger butterfly lily, ginger lily, garland flower, 'awapuhi-ke'oke'o
Hedychium flavescens (Zingiberaceae) yellow ginger cream ginger, 'awapuhi-melemele
Hedychium gardnerianum (Zingiberaceae) kahili ginger  
Heterocentron subtriplinervium (Melastomataceae) pearl flower  
Hiptage benghalensis (Malpighiaceae) hiptage  
Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) hydrilla water thyme, Florida elodea
Jasminum fluminense (Oleaceae) jasmine Jasminum azoricum
Kalanchoe delagoensis (Crassulaceae) chandelier plant KalanchoŽ tubiflora, Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoe verticillata
Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) air plant life plant, 'oliwa ku kahakai, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Cotyledon pinnata
Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) lantana lakana, mikinolia-hihiu, sage
Lemna (all species) (Lemnaceae) duckweed  
Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae) New Zealand tea manuka
Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) tree privet broadleaf privet
Ligustrum sinense (Oleaceae) Chinese privet hedge privet, small-leaved privet
Lonicera japonica (Caprifoliaceae) Japanese honeysuckle honekakala
Medinilla cumingii (Melastomataceae) medinilla  
Medinilla venosa (Melastomataceae) medinilla  
Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae) paperbark cajeput tree
Melastoma candidum (Melastomataceae) Indian rhododendron Melastoma malabathricum, Malabar melastome
Melastoma sanguineum (Melastomataceae) fox-tongued melastoma  
Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) Chinaberry pride-of-India, margosa tree
Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) miconia velvet tree, purple plague
Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) tree daisy  
Najas (all species) (Najadaceae) naiad pondweed
Nymphaea (all species) (Nymphaceae) water lily  
Ochna thomasiana (Ochnaceae) Mickey Mouse plant ochna, Ochna kirkii
Olea europaea (Oleaceae) olive 'oliwa
Passiflora laurifolia (Passifloraceae) yellow granadilla yellow water lemon, bell apple
Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) fountain grass Pennisetum ruppelii
Philadelphus karwinskyanus (Hydrangeaceae) mock orange philadelphus, syringa
Photinia davidiana (Rosaceae) photinia Stranvaesia davidiana, Cotoneaster frigidus
Pimenta dioica (Myrtaceae) allspice Pimenta officinalis
Pimenta racemosa (Myrtaceae) bay-rum malagueta, bay tree, Pimenta acris
Pinus patula (Pinaceae) Mexican weeping pine jelecote pine, patula pine, pino triste
Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) water lettuce  
Pittosporum pentandrum (Pittosporaceae) mamalis  
Pittosporum undulatum (Pittosporaceae) Victorian box Victorian laurel, orange pittosporum
Pittosporum viridiflorum (Pittosporaceae) Cape pittosporum  
Platycerium bifurcatum (Polypodiaceae) elkhorn fern common staghorn fern
Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) strawberry guava waiawi-'ula'ula
Pyracantha angustifolia (Rosaceae) firethorn  
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae) rose myrtle downy myrtle
Rubus (all species) (Rosaceae) blackberry, raspberry thimbleberry, brambles, 'ohelo 'ele 'ele
Ruellia devosiana (Acanthaceae) Ruellia  
Salvinia (all species) (Salviniaceae) floating fern  
Schefflera actinophylla (Araliaceae) octopus tree Brassaia actinophylla, umbrella tree
Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) pepper tree California pepper tree
Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) Christmas berry Brazilian pepper, wilelaiki, nani-o-hilo
Solandra maxima (Solanaceae) cup-of-gold golden cup, chalice vine
Spathodea campanulata (Bignoniaceae) African tulip tree fountain tree, fire bell
Sphaeropteris cooperi (Cyatheaceae) Australian treefern Cyathea cooperi
Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae) wedelia Wedelia trilobata
Stapelia gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) carrion flower starfish flower, Zulu-giant, giant toad plant
Tamarix (all species) (Tamaricaceae) ?  
Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) tropical almond Indian almond, false kamani, kamani-haole
Tetrazygia bicolor (Melastomataceae) (no common name)  
Thunbergia grandiflora (Acanthaceae) Bengal trumpet blue trumpet vine, large-flowered thunbergia
Thunbergia laurifolia (Acanthaceae) laurel-leaved thunbergia  
Tibouchina herbacea (Melastomataceae) cane tibouchina glorybush
Tibouchina urvilleana (Melastomataceae) glorybush princess flower, lasiandra
Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) common mullein woolly mullein, velvet plant

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This page was created on 03 May 2001, and was reviewed on 09 May 2017.