Western Australia Department of Agriculture (AgWest) Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) Global Compendium of Weeds
Plantago major (Plantaginaceae)


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Presented here is summary information about the species Plantago major from the Global Compendium of Weeds, and citations of references to this species as a weed. Definitions of terms are available in the GCW introduction View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format. For further information--or to report corrections or concerns--contact webmaster@hear.org.


Synonyms/other Latin names:see GRIN ]

Status(es) (compiled for below "Data sources"): agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, noxious weed, weed [for definitions, see the GCW introduction View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format.]

Origin (native to where): [no info]



Data sources:

Exotic Plant Species List Scientific and Common Names of known Exotic Plant Species in the Redwood National and State Parks. This list of exotic species was compiled from the park's plant species lists and herbarium specimens. The inventory of species and associated threat assessment are essential parts of the parks' Exotic Plant Management Plan. California State Parks, US National Park Service. Last Update: June 13, 2001

A list of weed species from various New Zealand references to "weeds" compiled by P.A.Williams, Landcare Research, New Zealand.

Alanen, A., Bongard, T., Einarsson, E., Hansen, H., Hedlund, L., Jansson, K., Josefsson, M., Philipp, M., Sandlund, O.T., Svart, A.E., Svart, H.E. and Weidema, I. (2004?). Introduced Species in the Nordic Countries (Denmark) under Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR), subgroup Natur-og Friluftslivsgruppen.

Alien Species. On March 10, the Japanese Cabinet submitted the bill dealing with invasive alien species to the Diet. The Diet passed the bill without amendments and the Invasive Alien Species Act was promulgated as of June 2, 2004. List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004) [PDF]

Alien plants of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Plantas extranjeras de Fuerteventura, Islas Canarias - korrigierte Fassung vom 23.01.2002 - Prof. Dr. Dietmar Brandes, Dipl.-Biol. Katrin Fritzsch. Arbeitsgruppe für Vegetationsökologie und experimentelle Pflanzensoziologie Botanisches Institut und Botanischer Garten der TU Braunschweig D-38023 Braunschweig. Abstract: The nowadays flora of Fuerteventura contains some 780 species. At least 119 species are aliens, some 150 further species of mediterranean and/or North African origin are probably introduced too. The estimated percentage of aliens therefore reaches 35 %.

Andersen, R.N. (1968). Germination and Establishment of Weeds for Experimental Purposes. Weed Science Society of America Handbook. WSSA, Illinois.

Anderson, W.P. (1999). Perennial Weeds. Iowa State University Press Iowa, USA

Anon (1992). The Grower's Weed Identification Handbook by Family and by Aphabetical Listing. Publication 4030. - Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California.

Anon. (1972). Weed Manual. 8th Ed. [2nd revised and extended Edition] Schering AG, Berlin.

Arasi Lawrence Company TM. Weeds of Egypt.

Argentina AGRO Management Malezas Incluidas. Argentinian Software Development Company.

Auld, B.A. and Medd, R.W. (1992) WEEDS, An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Barker, W.R., R.M.Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow (Eds.) (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants. 5th Edition. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. Supplement 1. (Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium: Adelaide).

Bernard H. Zandstra (2003). Weed Control Guide for Vegetable Crops. MSU Extension Bulletin E-433 (Revised November 2002). Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University

Botha, C. (2001). Common Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa. ARC - Grain Crops Institute, South Africa.

Boulos, L., and Nabil el-Hadidi, M (1994). The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cario press, Cario, Egypt.

Bromilow, C. (1995) Problem Plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Arcardia, South Africa.

CALFLORA DATABASE Summaries of geographic distribution, habitat, and lifeform data for the approximately 8400 vascular plant taxa known to be native or naturalized in California, based on published literature as well as specific documented observations.

CHECKLIST OF THE GIBRALTAR FLORA compiled by Leslie Linares BSc. Gibralta Ornithological & Natural History Society Botanical Section Co-ordinator

Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. (1992). Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. Melbourne

Castro, S.A., Figueroa, J.A., Munoz-Schick, M. and Jaksic, F.M. (2005) Minimum residence time,biogeographical origin, and life cycle as determinants of the geographical extent of naturalized plants in continental Chile. Diversity and Distributions 11: 183-191. Appendix S1 Checklist of 428 naturalized plants in continental Chile, their first record date (FRD), life cycle (LC), biogeographic origin (BO), and number of administrative regions occupied (ARO). Am: America; Eu: Europe; As: Asia; Af: Africa; Au: Australia; N.Z.: New Zealand; Pan: Pantropical; Cosmo: Cosmopolitan; Tro: Tropical.

Check-list of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly - 1994 C.N. French and R.J. Murphy. University of Exeter

Chris, R. and McLendon, T. (1998) An Assessment of Exotic Plant Species of Rocky Mountain National Park Rutledge. Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University. 97pp. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 15DEC98).

Cirsium 2002 T. Seliskar & Institut za fitomedicino BF. Check list of organisms with Bayer codes, use codes, pictures and passports with over 200.000 Latin names and 120.000 Native name . Source of latin names and common names EPPO Plant Protection Thesaurus, Registry of Flora of Slovenia, Mala flora Slovenije Photos by: Branko Vres, Andrej Seliskar, Franci Celar, Stanislav Gomboc, Robert Brus, Lea Milevoj, Gregor Urek, H. Weilguny Bla_ Segula.

Colin C. Ogle (last revision May 2003). Adventive plants collected in the Wanganui Conservancy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation, 1988-present. (Unpublished working list). Author's address:22 Forres St, Wanganui, New Zealand. Email: robcol.ogle@xtra.co.nz

Conabio Programa de especies invasoras Especies invasoras plantas (Mexico)

Darbyshire, S.J. (2003). Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. (agricultural weed)

Darrow, R.A. Erickson, L.C. Holstrum, J.T.Jnr., Miller, J.F., Scudder, W.F. and Williams, J.L. Jnr. (1966) Report of the Terminology Committee, Standardized Names of Weeds. WSSA (14), 346-386. Weed Science Society of America.

Databases. List of Weed Species with links to more data. FAO Weed Management, Ricardo Labrada.

Eduardo Chacón and Guido Saborío-R (2003) LISTA DE ESPECIES DE PLANTAS INTRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA. Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO) [edchacon@gmail.com & gsaborio@gmail.com.]

Environmental Weed List Victoria. Supplied by Weedmanager.Net (Source not cited but possibly drawn from Carr et al. Environmental Weeds of Victoria)

Ernst Hafliger, (Basle), and Josef Brun-Hool, (Lucerne) (1968-) CIBA-GEIGY WEED TABLES A synoptic presentation of the flora accompanying agricultural crops.

Fern, K. (1992-97). Plants for a Future. A resource centre for edible and other useful plants. The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0NG, England. URL: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/index.html [ online info ]

Flora Arvense of Navarra. herbario De la Universidad, Publica De Navarra. Herbario - Departamento de Ciencias del Medio Natural Universidad Pública de Navarra E-31006 Pamplona (Navarra) - España herbarium@unavarra.es Herbario - Natura Ingurunearen Zientzen Saila Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa E-31006 Iruña (Nafarroa) - Espainia autores: Javier Peralta [flora] & Mercedes Royuela [control] programación y fotografías: J. Peralta adaptación a la web institucional: Pablo San Roman (CSIE)

G.R.I.N. TAXON Database GRIN

Garcia, J.G., MacBryde, B., Molina, A.R. and Herrera-MacBryde, O. (1975) Prevalent Weeds of Central America. International Plant Protection Centre, El Salvador.

Gibson, N., Keighery, B., Keighery, G., Burbidge, A. and Lyons, M. (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Green, P. (1994) NORFOLK ISLAND SPECIES LIST. In Flora of Australia, Vol.49, AGPS. Australian Biological Resources Study (Peter Green)

Hanf, M. (1983). The Arable Weeds of Europe, with their seedlings and seeds. BASF Aktiengesellschaft, D-6700 Ludwigshafen. Germany

Harada, J., Paisooksantivantana, Y. and Zungsontiporn, S. (1987). Weeds in the Higlands of Northern Thailand. Project Manual No. 3. National Weed Science Research Institute Project. (also available as a web site Weeds in the Highlands of Northern Thailand. Botany and Weed Science Division of the Thai Department of Agriculture.)

Harada, J., Shibayama, H. and Morita, H. (1996). Weeds in the Tropics. Association for International Cooperation of Agriculture and Forestry, Japan.

Henderson, M., and Anderson, JG. (1966). Common Weeds of South Africa. Memoirs of the Botanical Surveys of South Africa N 37, Department of Agriculture, Technical Services, Republic of South Africa.

Henty, E.E. and Pritchard, G.S. (1973) Weeds of New Guinea and their control. Botany Bulletin N7. Department of Forests. Div. of Botany. Lae, P.N.G. (All plants illustrated, kept in Agency library)

Holm, L. G., Pancho, J. V., Herberger, J. P. and Plucknett, D. L. (1979). A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. John Wiley and Sons NewYork, USA

Holm, L.G., Plucknett, D.L., Pancho, J.V. and Herberger, J.P. (1977). The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. University Press of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii.

Horng, H.C. & Leu, L.S. (1980). Weeds of Cultivated Land in Taiwan. Weed Science Society of the Republic of China.

HortGuard and GrainGuard Initial Threat List Compilations

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd. S.G. (1997). Western Weeds, a guide to the weeds of Western Australia. Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Inc Western Australia. [list of images held in slide collection from original publication]

I3N-Paraguay Datasets. Naturalised Flora.

riculture and Natural Resources, University of California.

Anon. (1972). Weed Manual. 8th Ed. [2nd revised and extended Edition] Schering AG, Berlin.

Arasi Lawrence Company TM. Weeds of Egypt.

Argentina AGRO Management Malezas Incluidas. Argentinian Software Development Company.

Auld, B.A. and Medd, R.W. (1992) WEEDS, An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Barker, W.R., R.M.Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow (Eds.) (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants. 5th Edition. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. Supplement 1. (Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium: Adelaide).

Bernard H. Zandstra (2003). Weed Control Guide for Vegetable Crops. MSU Extension Bulletin E-433 (Revised November 2002). Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University

Botha, C. (2001). Common Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa. ARC - Grain Crops Institute, South Africa.

Boulos, L., and Nabil el-Hadidi, M (1994). The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cario press, Cario, Egypt.

Bromilow, C. (1995) Problem Plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Arcardia, South Africa.

CALFLORA DATABASE Summaries of geographic distribution, habitat, and lifeform data for the approximately 8400 vascular plant taxa known to be native or naturalized in California, based on published literature as well as specific documented observations.

CHECKLIST OF THE GIBRALTAR FLORA compiled by Leslie Linares BSc. Gibralta Ornithological & Natural History Society Botanical Section Co-ordinator

Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. (1992). Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. Melbourne

Castro, S.A., Figueroa, J.A., Munoz-Schick, M. and Jaksic, F.M. (2005) Minimum residence time,biogeographical origin, and life cycle as determinants of the geographical extent of naturalized plants in continental Chile. Diversity and Distributions 11: 183-191. Appendix S1 Checklist of 428 naturalized plants in continental Chile, their first record date (FRD), life cycle (LC), biogeographic origin (BO), and number of administrative regions occupied (ARO). Am: America; Eu: Europe; As: Asia; Af: Africa; Au: Australia; N.Z.: New Zealand; Pan: Pantropical; Cosmo: Cosmopolitan; Tro: Tropical.

Check-list of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly - 1994 C.N. French and R.J. Murphy. University of Exeter

Chris, R. and McLendon, T. (1998) An Assessment of Exotic Plant Species of Rocky Mountain National Park Rutledge. Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University. 97pp. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 15DEC98).

Cirsium 2002 T. Seliskar & Institut za fitomedicino BF. Check list of organisms with Bayer codes, use codes, pictures and passports with over 200.000 Latin names and 120.000 Native name . Source of latin names and common names EPPO Plant Protection Thesaurus, Registry of Flora of Slovenia, Mala flora Slovenije Photos by: Branko Vres, Andrej Seliskar, Franci Celar, Stanislav Gomboc, Robert Brus, Lea Milevoj, Gregor Urek, H. Weilguny Bla_ Segula.

Colin C. Ogle (last revision May 2003). Adventive plants collected in the Wanganui Conservancy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation, 1988-present. (Unpublished working list). Author's address:22 Forres St, Wanganui, New Zealand. Email: robcol.ogle@xtra.co.nz

Conabio Programa de especies invasoras Especies invasoras plantas (Mexico)

Darbyshire, S.J. (2003). Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. (agricultural weed)

Darrow, R.A. Erickson, L.C. Holstrum, J.T.Jnr., Miller, J.F., Scudder, W.F. and Williams, J.L. Jnr. (1966) Report of the Terminology Committee, Standardized Names of Weeds. WSSA (14), 346-386. Weed Science Society of America.

Databases. List of Weed Species with links to more data. FAO Weed Management, Ricardo Labrada.

Eduardo Chacón and Guido Saborío-R (2003) LISTA DE ESPECIES DE PLANTAS INTRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA. Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO) [edchacon@gmail.com & gsaborio@gmail.com.]

Environmental Weed List Victoria. Supplied by Weedmanager.Net (Source not cited but possibly drawn from Carr et al. Environmental Weeds of Victoria)

Ernst Hafliger, (Basle), and Josef Brun-Hool, (Lucerne) (1968-) CIBA-GEIGY WEED TABLES A synoptic presentation of the flora accompanying agricultural crops.

Fern, K. (1992-97). Plants for a Future. A resource centre for edible and other useful plants. The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0NG, England. URL: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/index.html [ online info ]

Flora Arvense of Navarra. herbario De la Universidad, Publica De Navarra. Herbario - Departamento de Ciencias del Medio Natural Universidad Pública de Navarra E-31006 Pamplona (Navarra) - España herbarium@unavarra.es Herbario - Natura Ingurunearen Zientzen Saila Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa E-31006 Iruña (Nafarroa) - Espainia autores: Javier Peralta [flora] & Mercedes Royuela [control] programación y fotografías: J. Peralta adaptación a la web institucional: Pablo San Roman (CSIE)

G.R.I.N. TAXON Database GRIN

Garcia, J.G., MacBryde, B., Molina, A.R. and Herrera-MacBryde, O. (1975) Prevalent Weeds of Central America. International Plant Protection Centre, El Salvador.




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This page was created on 13 September 2007 by PT, and was last updated on 04 October 2007 by PT based on data from Rod Randall's Global Compendium of Weeds database dated 24 January 2007. Valid HTML 4.01!