Western Australia Department of Agriculture (AgWest) Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) Global Compendium of Weeds
Lolium perenne (Poaceae)


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Presented here is summary information about the species Lolium perenne from the Global Compendium of Weeds, and citations of references to this species as a weed. Definitions of terms are available in the GCW introduction View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format. For further information--or to report corrections or concerns--contact webmaster@hear.org.


Synonyms/other Latin names:see GRIN ]

Status(es) (compiled for below "Data sources"): agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, weed [for definitions, see the GCW introduction View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format.]

Origin (native to where): [no info]



Data sources:

CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF FINLAND, based on Kurtto, A. & Lahti, T. 1987: Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo (Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland). - Pamphl. Bot. Mus. Univ. Helsinki 11: I.-VI + 1-163. The list includes all the vascular plants found in Finland up to 1987, excluding those only in cultivation (i.e. taxa found during the past few years - mainly casual plants or plants escaping from cultivation are missing, and erroneous records of the 1987 list have not been corrected)

Exotic Plant Species List Scientific and Common Names of known Exotic Plant Species in the Redwood National and State Parks. This list of exotic species was compiled from the park's plant species lists and herbarium specimens. The inventory of species and associated threat assessment are essential parts of the parks' Exotic Plant Management Plan. California State Parks, US National Park Service. Last Update: June 13, 2001

Important Weed Species in Crops and Countries. Data stored from 59 developing countries and regularly updated. (Information kindly provided by Dr Dionisio P. Gazziero) FAO Weed Management, Ricardo Labrada.

2006/115 Non-indigenous flora of the Azores Archipelago (PT) EPPO Reporting Service, NO. 5, PARIS, 2006-05-01

A list of weed species from various New Zealand references to "weeds" compiled by P.A.Williams, Landcare Research, New Zealand.

Albrecht, D. (1998) Weeds of Alice Springs. Northern Territory Herbarium, Unpublished Doc. [Dave Albrecht

Alien Plants in Korea. National Institute of Environmental Research. NIER : nier.go.kr Director. Deok-Gil Rhee. July 2004.

Alien Species. On March 10, the Japanese Cabinet submitted the bill dealing with invasive alien species to the Diet. The Diet passed the bill without amendments and the Invasive Alien Species Act was promulgated as of June 2, 2004. List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004) [PDF]

Anon (1989) Manuale per il Riconoscimento delle Principali erbe Infestantii. Societa Italiana per lo Studio della Lotta alle Malerbe S.I.L.M Italy.

Anon (1992). The Grower's Weed Identification Handbook by Family and by Aphabetical Listing. Publication 4030. - Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California.

Arasi Lawrence Company TM. Weeds of Egypt.

Barker, W.R., R.M.Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow (Eds.) (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants. 5th Edition. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. Supplement 1. (Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium: Adelaide).

Bernard H. Zandstra (2003). Weed Control Guide for Vegetable Crops. MSU Extension Bulletin E-433 (Revised November 2002). Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University

Botha, C. (2001). Common Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa. ARC - Grain Crops Institute, South Africa.

Boulos, L., and Nabil el-Hadidi, M (1994). The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cario press, Cario, Egypt.

Bromilow, C. (1995) Problem Plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Arcardia, South Africa.

Calder, J. A. & Taylor, L. R. (1968). Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part 1. Systematics of the vascular plants. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch, Monograph No. 4, Part 1, 659 pp.

Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. (1992). Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. Melbourne

Castro, S.A., Figueroa, J.A., Munoz-Schick, M. and Jaksic, F.M. (2005) Minimum residence time,biogeographical origin, and life cycle as determinants of the geographical extent of naturalized plants in continental Chile. Diversity and Distributions 11: 183-191. Appendix S1 Checklist of 428 naturalized plants in continental Chile, their first record date (FRD), life cycle (LC), biogeographic origin (BO), and number of administrative regions occupied (ARO). Am: America; Eu: Europe; As: Asia; Af: Africa; Au: Australia; N.Z.: New Zealand; Pan: Pantropical; Cosmo: Cosmopolitan; Tro: Tropical.

Checklist of wild flowering plants and ferns in Iceland. Flora of Iceland

Chris Buddenhagen and Melanie Newfield (pers comm. 2001) A list of potential and actual environmental weeds for New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Chris, R. and McLendon, T. (1998) An Assessment of Exotic Plant Species of Rocky Mountain National Park Rutledge. Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University. 97pp. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 15DEC98).

Cirsium 2002 T. Seliskar & Institut za fitomedicino BF. Check list of organisms with Bayer codes, use codes, pictures and passports with over 200.000 Latin names and 120.000 Native name . Source of latin names and common names EPPO Plant Protection Thesaurus, Registry of Flora of Slovenia, Mala flora Slovenije Photos by: Branko Vres, Andrej Seliskar, Franci Celar, Stanislav Gomboc, Robert Brus, Lea Milevoj, Gregor Urek, H. Weilguny Bla_ Segula.

Colin C. Ogle (last revision May 2003). Adventive plants collected in the Wanganui Conservancy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation, 1988-present. (Unpublished working list).  Author's address: 22 Forres St, Wanganui, New Zealand.  Email: robcol.ogle@xtra.co.nz

Conabio » Programa de especies invasoras » Especies invasoras plantas (Mexico)

Darbyshire, S.J. (2003). Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, Ontario.

Eduardo Chacón and Guido Saborío-R (2003) LISTA DE ESPECIES DE PLANTAS INTRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA. Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO) [edchacon@gmail.com & gsaborio@gmail.com.]

Environmental Weed List Victoria. Supplied by Weedmanager.Net (Source not cited but possibly drawn from Carr et al. Environmental Weeds of Victoria)

Ernst Hafliger, (Basle), and Josef Brun-Hool, (Lucerne) (1968-) CIBA-GEIGY WEED TABLES A synoptic presentation of the flora accompanying agricultural crops.

Fern, K. (1992-97). Plants for a Future. A resource centre for edible and other useful plants. The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0NG, England. URL: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/index.html [ online info ]

Germplasm Resources Information Network G.R.I.N. GRIN

Green, P. (1994) NORFOLK ISLAND SPECIES LIST. In Flora of Australia, Vol.49, AGPS. Australian Biological Resources Study (Peter Green)

Heap, I. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Online. Internet. December 24, 1999 .

Holm, L. G., Pancho, J. V., Herberger, J. P. and Plucknett, D. L. (1979). A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. John Wiley and Sons NewYork, USA

HortGuard and GrainGuard Initial Threat List Compilations

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd. S.G. (1997). Western Weeds, a guide to the weeds of Western Australia. Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Inc Western Australia. [list of images held in slide collection from original publication]

Häfliger, E. and Scholz, H. (1981). Grassweeds 2. Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

INTRODUCED FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. Generation Date: September 17, 2004 4:23 PM. Ian Cowie.

Introduced (Naturalised) Flora of Ecuador: Catalogs on Web site of owners: http://www.ambiente.gov.ec/AMBIENTE/i3n2000 I3N.htm (If this link is broken, try www.ambiente.gov.ec, then access the data by clicking on "Ecuador Megadiverso" link at the top, then on "Biodiversidad del Ecuador" on the right, then on ""I3N"" on the left.) [ online info ]

Introduced (Naturalised) Species to the United States [USDA, NRCS 1999. The PLANTS database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. ]

Introduced (Naturalised) species of Tasmania (1999) Data Supplied by Resource Management and Conservation Department of Primary Industry, Water & Environment. Hobart

J.H.Kil, K.C.Shim, S.H.Park, K.S.Koh, M.H.Suh, Y.B.Ku, S.U.Suh, H.K.Oh, and H.Y.Kong (2004). Distributions of Naturalized Alien Plants in South Korea. Weed Technology. Vol 18. pp:1493-1495. [An Illustrated Internet Guide to Alien Plants in Korea (http://alienplant.nier.go.kr)] [ online info ]

John Hosking, NSW Department of Agriculture, Weed Database 30 April 2003 (agricultural weed, naturalised)

Keighery, G. and Longman, V. (2004). The naturalized vascular plants of Western Australia 1: Checklist, environmental weeds and Distribution in IBRA Regions. Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19 (1). pp:12-32.

Kern County Introduced (naturalised) Species - not all introduced species represented yet. Nature Alley, P.O. Box 153, Weldon, CA 93283. phone: (760) 378-2029. Copyright 1998-2005 by Nature Ali.

Landcare Research New Zealand (2001) Plant Names Database.

Li Yanghan (1998). Weeds of China. Beijing: Agriculture Press. 1617 pages + 8 plates. This book describes 106 families, 591 genera, 1380 species, 11 subspecies, 60 varied species. In Chinese with Latin name, English name and Chinese name index.

Lindemann, H.V. (2006). La flora interactiva de las malezas de México. Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. For comments please write to: malezasdemexico@yahoo.com.mx or heike@colpos.mx. (Dec, 2006)

List of exotic plants that have naturalised within the Wet Tropics Bioregion from Werren, G. (2001) 'Environmental Weeds of the Wet Tropics Bioregion: Risk Assessment & Priority Ranking'. A report prepared for the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns [Source of data: Queensland Herbarium records (HERBRECS) to November 2000; emended by concatenating conspecific subspecies/varieties, and inserting additional species otherwise known to have naturalised within the region]

Marticorena, C. & Quezada, A. (1985). Catálogo de la flora vascular de Chile. GAYANA, BOTANICA Vol 42 No. 1-2 Universidad de Concepcion-Chile.

Marticorena, C. (2000?) Naturalised Plants of Chile. University of Santiago Herbarium.

Mennan.ve ark (1999). Weed species in Hazelnut orchards in Blacksea region of Turkey. Karadeniz Bölgesi findik bahçelerinde görülen yabanco ot türleri.

Molina A.R. (1999). Malezas presentes en la Zona (Templada), Subtropical y Tropical de, América del Sur - parte 1.

Morita, H. (1997). Handbook of Arable Weeds in Japan. Kumiai Chemical Company.

re, Michigan State University

Botha, C. (2001). Common Weeds of Crops and Gardens in Southern Africa. ARC - Grain Crops Institute, South Africa.

Boulos, L., and Nabil el-Hadidi, M (1994). The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cario press, Cario, Egypt.

Bromilow, C. (1995) Problem Plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Arcardia, South Africa.

Calder, J. A. & Taylor, L. R. (1968). Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part 1. Systematics of the vascular plants. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch, Monograph No. 4, Part 1, 659 pp.

Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. (1992). Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. Melbourne

Castro, S.A., Figueroa, J.A., Munoz-Schick, M. and Jaksic, F.M. (2005) Minimum residence time,biogeographical origin, and life cycle as determinants of the geographical extent of naturalized plants in continental Chile. Diversity and Distributions 11: 183-191. Appendix S1 Checklist of 428 naturalized plants in continental Chile, their first record date (FRD), life cycle (LC), biogeographic origin (BO), and number of administrative regions occupied (ARO). Am: America; Eu: Europe; As: Asia; Af: Africa; Au: Australia; N.Z.: New Zealand; Pan: Pantropical; Cosmo: Cosmopolitan; Tro: Tropical.

Checklist of wild flowering plants and ferns in Iceland. Flora of Iceland

Chris Buddenhagen and Melanie Newfield (pers comm. 2001) A list of potential and actual environmental weeds for New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Chris, R. and McLendon, T. (1998) An Assessment of Exotic Plant Species of Rocky Mountain National Park Rutledge. Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University. 97pp. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 15DEC98).

Cirsium 2002 T. Seliskar & Institut za fitomedicino BF. Check list of organisms with Bayer codes, use codes, pictures and passports with over 200.000 Latin names and 120.000 Native name . Source of latin names and common names EPPO Plant Protection Thesaurus, Registry of Flora of Slovenia, Mala flora Slovenije Photos by: Branko Vres, Andrej Seliskar, Franci Celar, Stanislav Gomboc, Robert Brus, Lea Milevoj, Gregor Urek, H. Weilguny Bla_ Segula.

Colin C. Ogle (last revision May 2003). Adventive plants collected in the Wanganui Conservancy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation, 1988-present. (Unpublished working list).  Author's address: 22 Forres St, Wanganui, New Zealand.  Email: robcol.ogle@xtra.co.nz

Conabio » Programa de especies invasoras » Especies invasoras plantas (Mexico)

Darbyshire, S.J. (2003). Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, Ontario.

Eduardo Chacón and Guido Saborío-R (2003) LISTA DE ESPECIES DE PLANTAS INTRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA. Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO) [edchacon@gmail.com & gsaborio@gmail.com.]

Environmental Weed List Victoria. Supplied by Weedmanager.Net (Source not cited but possibly drawn from Carr et al. Environmental Weeds of Victoria)

Ernst Hafliger, (Basle), and Josef Brun-Hool, (Lucerne) (1968-) CIBA-GEIGY WEED TABLES A synoptic presentation of the flora accompanying agricultural crops.

Fern, K. (1992-97). Plants for a Future. A resource centre for edible and other useful plants. The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0NG, England. URL: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/index.html [ online info ]

Germplasm Resources Information Network G.R.I.N. GRIN

Green, P. (1994) NORFOLK ISLAND SPECIES LIST. In Flora of Australia, Vol.49, AGPS. Australian Biological Resources Study (Peter Green)

Heap, I. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Online. Internet. December 24, 1999 .

Holm, L. G., Pancho, J. V., Herberger, J. P. and Plucknett, D. L. (1979). A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. John Wiley and Sons NewYork, USA

HortGuard and GrainGuard Initial Threat List Compilations

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd. S.G. (1997). Western Weeds, a guide to the weeds of Western Australia. Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Inc Western Australia. [list of images held in slide collection from original publication]

Häfliger, E. and Scholz, H. (1981). Grassweeds 2. Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

INTRODUCED FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. Generation Date: September 17, 2004 4:23 PM. Ian Cowie.

Introduced (Naturalised) Flora of Ecuador: Catalogs on Web site of owners: http://www.ambiente.gov.ec/AMBIENTE/i3n2000 I3N.htm (If this link is broken, try www.ambiente.gov.ec, then access the data by clicking on "Ecuador Megadiverso" link at the top, then on "Biodiversidad del Ecuador" on the right, then on ""I3N"" on the left.) [ online info ]

Zhang, Z.P. & Hirota, S. (Eds) (2000). Chinese Colored Weed Illustrated Book. Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, P.R.China, and the Japan Association For Advancement of Phyto-Regulators.




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This page was created on 13 September 2007 by PT, and was last updated on 04 October 2007 by PT based on data from Rod Randall's Global Compendium of Weeds database dated 24 January 2007. Valid HTML 4.01!