Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Anisoplaca ptyoptera as a biocontrol agent
for Ulex europaeus in Hawaii

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Information and references regarding Anisoplaca ptyoptera as a biocontrol agent for Ulex europaeus in Hawaii are provided here. For further information, contact webmaster@hear.org.

Status of Anisoplaca ptyoptera as a biocontrol agent for Ulex europaeus in Hawaii

Anisoplaca ptyoptera is a pyralid moth indigenous to New Zealand where it bores into the stems of gorse, Ulex europaeus. It was considered as a biocontrol for gorse in Hawaii, but not released. (info from http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9446_markin_2002/ accessed 20091104; http://www.invasive.org/publications/xsymposium/proceed/13pg909.pdf accessed 20091104; info as of 1999 & 2000)

References for Anisoplaca ptyoptera as a biocontrol agent for Ulex europaeus in Hawaii

Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review
Markin, George P., Patrick Conant, Eloise Killgore, and Ernest Yoshioka. 2002. Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review. pp. 53-1 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9446_markin_2002/)

The Biological Control Program Against Gorse in New Zealand
Gorse (Ulex europaeus L.: Fabaceae) has been a serious weed in New Zealand for over 100 years and continues to invade pastoral land, forest plantations, and vulnerable natural habitats. It has beneficial uses, but these are far outweighed by the costs. Gorse was once an important hedge plant, and until 1982, seed-feeding insects were the only biological controls considered appropriate. Exapion ulicis Forst. was released in 1931, and destroys about 35% of the annual seed crop. Six control agents have been introduced since 1988. Cydia succedana (Dennis and Schiffermüller) was released in 1992. Assessment at 1 site shows that the 2 seed-feeding insects can destroy about 90% of the annual seed crop. Gorse spider mite (Tetranychus lintearius Dufour) was introduced from several sources in Europe in 1989 and 1990, and established widely. Mite outbreaks severely damage plants, and reduce flowering, but populations large enough to kill mature gorse plants over wide areas cannot be sustained, probably because of predation. The gorse thrips, Sericothrips staphylinus Haliday, was introduced in 1990. It has spread only slowly, but significantly damaged gorse foliage in experimental studies. The foliage-feeding moths Agonopterix ulicetella (Stainton) and Pempelia genistella (Duponchel) have been released. Establishment is not yet certain. The scythridid moth, Scythris grandipennis (Haworth), has also been released, but it did not establish. No further releases are planned. Development of a bioherbicide augments the classical approach to biological control of gorse. The paper discusses the impact of control agents, and the future of the research. The New Zealand program has provided information and control agents to similar programs in Hawaii, Oregon and California, Chile, and Australia. (from the abstract) (http://www.invasive.org/publications/xsymposium/proceed/13pg909.pdf)

The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project is currently funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN)National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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