Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Liothrips urichi as a biocontrol agent
for Clidemia hirta in Hawaii


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Information and references regarding Liothrips urichi as a biocontrol agent for Clidemia hirta in Hawaii are provided here. For further information, contact webmaster@hear.org.


Status of Liothrips urichi as a biocontrol agent for Clidemia hirta in Hawaii

Liothrips urichi is established in Hawaii as a biocontrol agent for Clidemia hirta. However, it is not as effective as it otherwise might have been due because of predation of the agent by other insects. (info from Conant 2009 (p. 166) as referred to by http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9501_conant_2009/ (accessed 15SEP2009); also, Reimer 1988 (see http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/1451_reimer_1988/); info as of 2009)

References for Liothrips urichi as a biocontrol agent for Clidemia hirta in Hawaii

Effectiveness of Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaaeothripidae) introduced for biological control of Clidemia hirta in Hawaii, U.S.A.
Reimer, Neil J. and J.W. Beardsley. 1988. Effectiveness of Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaaeothripidae) introduced for biological control of Clidemia hirta in Hawaii, U.S.A. Environmental Entomology 18, no. 6:1141-46. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/1450_reimer_1988/)

Predation on Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), a case of biotic interference
Reimer, Neil J. 1988. Predation on Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), a case of biotic interference. Environmental Entomology 17, no. 1: 132-34. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/1451_reimer_1988/)

Classical biological control of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii using multiple strategies
Conant, Patrick. 2002. Classical biological control of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii using multiple strategies. pp. 13-20 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9442_conant_2002/)

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9451_smith_2002/)

Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don (Melastomataceae)
Conant, Patrick. 2009. Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don (Melastomataceae). Chapter (9) in Muniappan, R., G.V.P. Reddy, and A. Raman. 2009. Biological control of tropical weeds using arthropods. Cambridge University Press. (http://www.hear.org/bibliography/references/9501_conant_2009/)


The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project is currently funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN)National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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