Kraus, Fred and Earl W. Campbell III. 2002. Human-mediated escalation of a formerly eradicable problem: the invasion of Caribbean frogs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions 4: 327-332.
Two species of neotropical frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui and E. planirostris, have been introduced into the State of Hawaii via the horticulture trade. E. coqui was introduced prior to 1988 and E. planirostris was first reported in 1994. Since these dates frog colonies have rapidly spread accidentally and intentionally and frog abundance within colonies has grown rapidly. Although these frogs were originally restricted to horticulture sites, they are now found in residential areas, resorts and hotels, and public lands. Due to the high potential biomass of introduced frogs there are realistic anthropogenic and ecological concerns associated with the spread of these frogs. Though there currently is a tool that can be used for localized control of frogs in limited circumstances, overall efforts by Federal, State, and County agencies to control the frog in Hawaii have been hampered by limited authorities and funds, disbelief in the threat, and the reluctance to act.