Reimer, Neil J. and J.W. Beardsley. 1988. Effectiveness of Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaaeothripidae) introduced for biological control of Clidemia hirta in Hawaii, U.S.A. Environmental Entomology 18, no. 6:1141-46.
The effectiveness of Liothrips urichi Karny introduced to control the noxious weed Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don was studied at three sites on Oahu, Hawaii. Vegetative C. hirta infested with L. urichi showed greater mortality after 1 mo and significantly shorter internode diameters among the survivors at 4 mo than uninfested plants. L. urichi had no effect on plant height in the field but stunted the growth of young potted C. hirta in greenhouse studies and caused a significant increase in terminal leaf drop. No effect on production of floral buds, flowers, or berries occurred at any field site over 11 mo. L. urichi was restricted to sunny or partly sunny sites and never occurred in heavily shaded areas. Higher thrips infestations occurred during the fall and winter and lower infestations during the summer. Percentage of damaged tips also fluctuated seasonally, but the degree of damage to individual leaves was not seasonal.