Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Zoysia matrella
(L.) Merr., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Agrostis matrella L.; Osterdamia matrella (L.) Kuntze; Zoysia pungens Willd.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: gou ye jie lü cao

Chuukese: fatil

English: Korean grass, Manila grass, Manila temple grass, siglap grass, temple grass

French: chiendent gazon

Japanese: sipa

Palauan: siba

Satawalese: fetil

Spanish: césped chino, hierba Manila

Ulithian: fathil

Habit:  grass

Description:  var. pacifica: "Stoloniferous or shallowly rhizomatous, forming low mats, 3-5 cm high, when crowded up to 10-20 cm.  Stolons or rhizomes wiry, 1-1.5 mm diameter, internodes 1.5-3 cm, branches in small bunches from each node.  Sheaths of branch leaves usually longer than internodes, furrowed, glabrous; ligule a line of very short hairs, ca 0.1 mm, with fine tufts of longer auricular hairs, 1-2 mm; leaf blades linear, long-attenuate, (1.5-) 2-3 (-6) cm x ca 1 mm, often involute, finely furrowed, glabrous.  Inflorescence a narrow, cylindric, spike-like raceme, 1-2.5 cm long, ca 2 mm diameter, rachis irregularly winged, with 15-20 spikelets on appressed pedicels, 0.5-1.5 mm long.  Spikelets ca 2.5 mm, 1-nerved, indurate, glabrous, shiny, margins united in lower half; lemma shorter, 1-nerved, membranous, glabrous, palea not observed.  Lodicules not observed; stamens 3, anthers 1.2-1.5 mm.  Caryopsis not observed.  Protogynous with stigma and anthers exserted through the apical aperture"  (Lægaard & Peterson, 2001).

"It is easily mistaken for Paspalum vaginatum, which becomes much bigger, and for Cynodon dactylon" (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 90).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Cultivated as lawns in the tropical coastal region, sometimes escaped and becoming naturalized" (Lægaard & Peterson, 2001).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South Pacific and East Asia (Lægaard & Peterson, 2001).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 55)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35393)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 55)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34744)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 38838)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. var. pacifica Goudsw.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9077)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoyzia tenuifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. matrella
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2155 (US) var. tenuifolia Fosberg 31581 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59079
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 7919 (US), Falanruw 1954 (US); var. tenuifolia Fosberg 31709 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
varieties matrella and pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
var. matrella; var. tenuifolia Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 7857 (Fo), Falanruw 1963 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2285 (US), var. tenuifolia Falanruw 2287 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59198
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 12)
varieties matrella and pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. matrella
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. matrella
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1977) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 3110 (US), Falanruw 3111 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. matrella
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2215 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
varieties matrella and pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
var. tenuifolia Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31345 (US, BISH, Fo), Anderson 514 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. matrella
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1774 (US); var. tenuifolia Evans 2430 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58903
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
varieties matrella and pacifica Goudsw.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. pacifica
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. pacifica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Marshall 2 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 181 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 44902)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia pacifica (Goudsw.) M.Hotta & S.Kuroki
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 134)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 62)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58554 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2417 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 4)
As Zoysia tenuifolia Trin. Voucher cited: Evans 379 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 4)
As Zoysia tenuifolia Trin. Voucher cited: Fosberg 46864 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 107)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 107)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2040 (US)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 348)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 42198)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoyzia tenuifolia
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 197)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
varieties matrella? and pacifica Goudsw., cv. "Emerald Grass"
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. (1998) (p. 5)
Var. pacifica Gouds.; voucher cited: Lorence & Flynn 7651 (BISH, PTBG, US)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 7)
"Planted on Pinlep in village, supposed to have been brought from Jabor where it was introduced by the Japanese". Voucher cited: Fosberg 41408 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 4)
"Rare; small patch near fence of private yard in town".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 90)
Voucher cited: Whistler 11209
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43929)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Uncommon; planted around a few private homes; species uncertain".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0626200902
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 54)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A8)
Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. (or possibly Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.) Voucher 0722201001 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll native
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200904
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49762)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1992) (voucher ID: BNM 93)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island possibly native
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 22)
var. matrella. Also var. pacifica Goudsw., introduced and naturalized.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26466)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia matrella
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 63)
var. pacifica Goudsw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes and voucher.)
Zoysia pacifica (Goudsw.) M.Hotta & S.Kuroki. Voucher: Lorence 9748 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 40)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoysia pacifica (Goudsw.) M.Hotta & S.Kuroki
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. matrella, var. pacifica
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 191)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 51)
Occuring in open places chiefly along or near tidal streams.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3930)
Taxon name on voucher: Zoyzia tenuifolia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 118)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. matrella
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 350)
On sandy beaches.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 91)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 21)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)


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This page was created on 19 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.