Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Xanthosoma sagittifolium
(L.) Schott, Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Arum sagittifolium L.; Caladium sagittifolium (L.) Vent.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: woten sapan, wotopwula

English: American taro, cocoyam, dryland taro, Hawaiian taro, new cocoyam, new world taro, tania, tannia, yautia

Fijian: ghuya, ndalo ni kana, ndalo ni tana

French: chou Caraïbe, malanga marron, taye, tayove

I-Kiribati: te taororo

Maori (Cook Islands): taro taruā, tarotaruā, taruā

Marshallese: alõklõk, kãlõklõk

Nauruan: de taro

Palauan: bisech ra ruk, eball

Pohnpeian: sawahn awai

Rakahanga-Manihiki: taro taruā

Satawalese: yigalulu

Spanish: malanga, ocumo, otoy, tanier, tiquisque blanco, yautía blanca

Tahitian: taroua, tarua

Tuvaluan: talo palagi

Yapese: Honolulu, la‘iy

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus:  "Herbs with erect or tuberous rhizomes; leaf sagittate to pedatisect, the midvein of the posterior lobes often denuded, the secondary veins confluent and forming a zigzag collective vein between and parallel to the primary lateral veins; lower spathe persistent, the upper spathe withering; spadix pistillate below, staminate above, with sterile flowers between; staminate flowers of 4-6 stamens united in synandria; pistillate flowers with broad and coherent styles, the ovaries 2-4-locular with many subanatropous ovules borne near center of the axillary placenta; berry polyspermous; seed ovoid, sulcate."

Species:  "Erect stem in mature specimens 1 m or more high; leaves broadly sagittate-ovate, the anterior lobe twice as large as the posterior lobes, the posterior midribs not denuded next to the petiolar attachment; lower spathe 6-7 cm long, the upper spathe greenish white, about 15 cm long; pistillate and sterile parts of the spadix 3-4 cm long each, the staminate portion 5-6 cm long" (Smith, 1979; p. 459).

See also Xanthosoma atrovirens K. Koch & C. D. Bouché.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "it is commonly cultivated...but it is also naturalized along stream banks" (Smith, 1979; p. 459).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Neotropical, but origin obscure (Smith, 1979; p. 459).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 38833)
Taxon name on voucher: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"This species has established itself on the Island as an escape from cultivation near the Melanesian Mission". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 1031 (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31576 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31694 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1699 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Anderson 605 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1738 (US)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 283 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 6)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Fosberg Evans 387 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46870 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 459)
Vouchers cited: DA 3413, DA 10127
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39332)
Taxon name on voucher: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 8974 (PAP, PTBG, US), D. H. Lorence & L. M. Dunn 8992 (PTBG[2])
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 8974 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39346)
Taxon name on voucher: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39368)
Taxon name on voucher: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 20)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 308-309)
Voucher cited: BRY 26504
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 308-309)
Voucher cited: Grant 3990
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4614 (PAP)
"Fossé de bord de route".
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 123)
Included on the basis of a record by Fosberg (Stone, 1970).
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R. (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26770 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 30)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 44)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 18)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 5282, Barrau s.n.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 451)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 223)
Voucher cited: CHR 169954. Identification uncertain in Sykes, 1970.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 15)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 7)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 61)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 118)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 131)
Garden escape.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 19 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 9 AUG 2013.